khmer inscription

About the Corpus of Khmer Inscriptions 
No SEA Country’s transition to history is better documented than Cambodia. More than 1,200 Khmerand Sanscrit Inscription have been found across a broad swath of  the Mekong delta Region. Spanning the 6th to the 19th Centuries, they provide first-hand evidence of Ancient and medieval Khmer history, Culture, Language, and Art ….

SEAclassics old Khmer Corpus of the Inscription
SEAclassics Khmer Dictionary, Analysis ,Old Khmer Bitext Corpus, Image, Reference
About the Old Khmer Bitext Corpus :   This bitext corpus consists of Old Khmer texts translated by Philip  Jenner, and included in his Dictionary series.
 About the Dictionary of Old Khmer:   This site explores and maintains Prof. Phillip Jenner’s Dictionary of Pre-Angkorian Khmer and Dictionary of Angkorian Khmer (Pacific Linguistics, 2009).  It also serves as a test site for two new projects:
 About the Old Khmer Analyzed Inscription : This collection consists of Old Khmer inscriptions translated and analyzed by Philip Jenner.  Print publication is planned for 2010.
 About the SEAclassics Old Khmer Images : These images are scanned from a variety of sources, including Finot, Barthe, Bergaigne, Coedes, Pou, Jacques, the BEFEO, and the UNESCO-funded book.
MANUAL OF PRE-ANGKORIAN KHMER The Dated of Inscriptions what choose a chapter or inscription to begin and K numbers. By the way, In this chooses have much more functions like, Khmer texts, English texts, Information, Romanization, Translation, and Explanation,……BY   Philip N. Jenner

The Khmer Inscription with the multi-searches for more detailsSome Inscriptions are in this website, what we can search such as, Khmer texts, and English texts.  especially, they have more details about the areas, date, k numbers too.

http://sealang.net/classic/khmer/

 Corpus of Khmer Inscription 
More than one definitions  in this link are very broad for us to save and share for all.
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 Inscription from professor  Cha-em Kaeokhlai  in Thailand 
The Inscriptions in Thailand Database. This website displays the maininformation as follows: .
The information search icon as shown. texts in Thai language.
 http://www2.sac.or.th/databases/jaruk/th/main.php?p Inscription from professor  Cha-em Kaeokhlai  in Thailand
 The Inscriptions in Thailand Database. This website displays the maininformation as follows: .
texts in English……
www2.sac.or.th/databases/jaruk/en/main.php?p…id=116… – 

Catalog Number: K.1

Name: Stele of Vằt Thlĕṅ

Sources: C VI: 28-30.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Thlĕṅ is a modern temple which Cœdès locates in Chau Doc province near the village of Tnòt Čŭṃ, on the south side of the Canal de Ha Tien. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 136, shows it on the north side of some hills 40 kilometers east-northeast of Ha Tien; on modern maps this distance is more like 48 kilometers. Aymonier, op.cit. 146, furnishes a good description of the locality. The stele found at the site bears 26 lines in Khmer. Of these the first 18 are fairly well preserved, but a horizontal break above the 19th line has caused a number of lacunæ in what follows. It may be said in fact that the stele bears two unrelated texts: the first, of particular interest as being in narrative form, the second beginning with line 13 being a garbled tally of ricefields. ‘Le style de ce texte,’ Cœdès remarks, ‘est extrêmement concis et son interprétation est rendue malaisée par l’ignorance où l’on se trouve du sens de certains mots qui n’apparaissent nulle part ailleurs. On peut en outre se demander si cette inscription qui débute ex abrupto, sans aucune des formules liminaires traditionnelles, est bien complète et n’a pas été amputée de plusieurs lignes à sa partie supérieure.’

Synopsis: The first half of this inscription shows pre-Angkorian Khmer at its best, with a succession of sentences rich in points of grammar. It also offers a vignette of life as it was lived twelve centuries ago. Persons romantically inclined will read into it a tale of star-crossed lovers and an elopement ending in tragedy at the hands of cruel masters. The facts of the matter may be more pedestrian: ku Tai may well have been Kandos’s sister or aunt or a perfect stranger, or the two runaways may have given their owner the slip at different times and for different reasons. The second half of the text is a routine description of four tracts of riceland given to the divinity.


Catalog Number: K.6

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Prằṃ Lovêṅ

Sources: BEFEO, XXXVI (1936): 5-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date: The “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 77) dates this inscription to Śaka vie siècle; with good reason, this has been corrected by M. Claude Jacques to Śaka vie-viie siècle.

Provenance: Pràsàt Prằṃ Lovêṅ, located in Sadec province, Vietnam, is an ancient sanctuary on the site of Tháp Mười in the Plaine des Joncs. Assignment of this 10-line inscription to Tháp Mười is on the authority of Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: 139 (BEFEO, XXXVI: 5).

Synopsis: This short inscription records the setting up of an image of Śrī Puṣpavaṭasvāmi by a lord Śucidatta and the gift to the divinity of 3 male slaves, riceland, and palms, all to be shared with Śrī Puṣkarākṣa. The yajamāna is named in the closing passage. The text is of moderate grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.7

Name: Capital of Pràsàt Prằṃ Lovêṅ

Sources: BEFEO, XXXVI (1936): 3-6; APK I: 272; AIC, I: 14-7, IV: 4.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date: The “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 77) assigns this text to Śaka vie siècle. M. Claude Jacques has corrected this to Śaka vie-viie siècle. The Angkorian forms canlyak and jyaṅ (line 7), vnvak (lines 8, 9), and vṅya (line 10) suggest the second half of the 8th century, but paleography may indicate otherwise.

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Prằṃ Lovêṅ see № 93, note 2. This inscription of 20 lines in Khmer is described by Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: 140, and more fully by Cœdès (BEFEO, XXXVI: 3-4), who finds that several lines at the end have been lost.

Synopsis: This short inscription reports an order for the setting up of an image of Śrī Puṣkarākṣa and the provision of offerings to it. The condition of the text allows no more than partial exploitation, but the coherent passages are not without interest.


Catalog Number: K.8

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Prằm Lovêṅ

Sources: C II: 79; AIC, I: 18-20, IV: 5; G. Gerschheimer, communication received 25 March 2007 with fichier and photographs.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Prằm Lovêṅ see № 93, note 2. The schist stone bearing this inscription is a stele or piédroit measuring 1.48 x o.51 x o.12 meter. The text comprises 10 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: A 10-line inscription, legible throughout, recording the names of slaves given to Śrī Āmrātakeśvara. Its interest is entirely onomastic.


Catalog Number: K.9

Name: Stele of Phu-Hưu

Sources: C V: 35-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 561 = A.D. 639/640)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is A.D. 639/640 by the Julian calendar (Billard, 3). C V: 35 and 37, note 5, give “561 çaka (639 A.D.).”

Provenance: As Cœdès (C V: 35-6, note liminaire) describes it, the village of Phu-Hưu, not shown on any of my maps, is located in Sadec province, Vietnam. This inscription of 33 lines consists of 8 lines in Sanskrit followed by 25 lines in Khmer. It has to do with a sanctuary dedicated to Śrī Vīreśvara, an epithet of Śiva, and is associated with the ancient city of Tamandarapura. As lines 5-6 of the Sanskrit text indicate, this city was under the authority of one Bhoja, younger brother of the ruler of Rudrapurī.

Synopsis: This inscription is remarkable only for the magnitude of gifts made to Śrī Bhaṭṭāra Vīreśvara: 836 sanre of riceland as well as groves of economically important trees. Twenty-four donors are enumerated. Ordered in a loosely fixed pattern, the text is of routine linguistic interest.


Catalog Number: K.11

Name: Čẵn Čŭṃ Stone

Sources: C II: 7; AIC, I: 21-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The village of Čẵn Čŭṃ is located in the sruk of Trẵṅ, Tà Kèv province. A schist slab found near the modern temple of Vằt Pôthivoṅ Lơ in the village bears this inscription of 9 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This fragment, of onomastic interest only, consists of a list of male and female slaves with mention of cattle and paddy.


Catalog Number: K.18

Name: Stele of Prei Mîen

Sources: C II: 146; AIC I: 28-32, IV: 8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 648 = A.D. 726)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Thursday, 11 July (or the night before), A.D. 726, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 6).

Provenance: C II: 146 locates Prei Mîen in the sruk of Trẵṅ, Kampot province, while the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 78) assigns it to Tà Kèv province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 160 shows it 8 kilometers due southwest of Takeo. On modern maps it could be in the sruk of Treang, but that of Tram Kak is more likely; it lies about 27 kilometers due west of Angkor Borei. The site is identified by Cœdès as a tertre, while Aymonier, op.cit., 170 calls it a village. The modern temple is built on the site of a small brick tower of ancient date. This inscription, on a stele 1.5 meters high and o.4 meter wide, consists of 31 lines in Khmer, of which the last 6 are separated from the rest by a space.

Synopsis: This inscription records gifts to Śrī Śaṃkaranārāyaṇa made by three or more individuals, probably all related. A lord Bhāskarapāla gives 8 tracts of riceland (lines 3-6) and 31 adult slaves (lines 6-12). A lord Siddhigaṇa gives slaves (lines 12-21) and ricefields (lines 21-3). The mother of a lord Candrasena, perhaps in association with another, gives slaves (lines 26-8) and ricefields (lines 29-30).


Catalog Number: K.19

Name: Stele of Trapẵṅ Sambŏt

Sources: C VI: 143-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 886 = A.D. 964)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Trapẵṅ Sambŏt (trabāṃṅ saṃputr) is a reservoir some 40 meters square in the sruk of Kirivong, Takéo province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 160, shows it lying a short distance from the frontier some 20 kilometers southwest of Phnom Bayang, 16 kilometers east of the ‘Stung Mak Prang’, 30 kilometers northeast of Ha Tien, 45 kilometers southwest of Chau Doc. The stele found at this site bears an inscription comprising 7 lines in Sanskrit, 26 lines in Khmer. Aymonier (op.cit., 165) described the stone as having an oblique break running through the text. This and numerous lacunæ preclude a coherent analysis and translation.

Synopsis: This is a curious inscription reporting the conversion of unnamed foundations to the status of royal pious works (rājapuṇya). A number of lacunæ disrupt the text, which is riddled with lacunæ from line 17, and render coherent description difficult or impossible.


Catalog Number: K.21N

Name: Piédroit of Poñã Hòr

Sources: C V: 5-6. AIC, I: 33-6, IV: 9, reproduces K.21S (in Sanskrit) but not K.21N.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Cœdès (C V: 5) locates Poñã Hòr in the sruk of Trẵṅ, Tà Kèv (Takéo) province, about 50 kilometers northwest of Chau Doc. It is the site of an ancient sanctuary consisting of two towers now in ruins with only the framework of the two portals remaining. On the south piédroit of one portal is an inscription of 17 lines in Sanskrit, published by Auguste Barth (ISCC, II: 24); the north piédroit bears this inscription of 6 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription reports the gift to Śrī Trailokyasārasvāmi of riceland, gems, costly articles and cult objects by a kurāk whose name is illegible. It includes no points of grammar not previously addressed.


Catalog Number: K.22

Name: Stele of Vằt Pô

Sources: C III: 143-7; CJ ms; AIC, I: 37-42, IV: 10.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Pô is located in Tà Kèv province, sruk of Kon Andet. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 160, shows it 23 kilometers due northwest of Chau Doc and 17.5 kilometers west of the Fleuve Postérieur. This inscription of 42 lines, found by Aymonier, comprises 14 lines in Sanskrit followed by 28 lines in Khmer, and is incomplete as it stands. I have profited from a new reading of the estampage by M. Claude Jacques.

Synopsis: The Sanskrit text of this inscription commemorates the installation of an image of Harihara by a muni Īśānadatta during the reign of Īśānavarman I. The Khmer text lists slaves and ricefields given by various individuals for the support of the divinity. Cœdès notes that while lines 15 to 30 are in a good state of preservation the last five lines are in a larger character and ill-designed. Indeed, if the first 20 lines are routine, the last 8 are frustrating in their opacity. One has the impression that their decipherment must have been uncommonly difficult.


Catalog Number: K.24

Name: Stele of Aṅkor Bórĕi

Sources: C II: 16-7; AIC, I: 43-7 (side B only).

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Aṅkor Bórĕi see I, № 1, note 2. This red sandstone stele, found by Aymonier on the right bank of the river of Aṅkor Bórĕi half-buried beneath a banyan tree, measures 1.17 x 0.80 x o.10 meters and has text on both sides: 17 lines on face A, 14 lines on face B. As Cœdès remarks (C II: 16), ‘[Il] se réduit à un état nominatif d’esclaves, ku et va, qui ne se prête pas à traduction et intéresse surtout l’onomastique’.

Synopsis: The two sides of this fragmented inscription give an enumeration of some 319 slaves, including children. As such, it is of onomastic value only and offers nothing of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.28

Name: Fragment of Prei Phkẵṃ

Sources: C II: 24; AIC, I: 48, IV: 12.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Prei Phkẵṃ is a village in Tà Kèv province, in the southernmost part of the sruk of Prei Krabàs, close to the border of sruk Aṅkor Bórĕi, and about 14 kilometers due north-east of Takéo. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 192, shows it located 9 kilometers northwest of Aṅkor Bórĕi and 17 kilometers west of the Fleueve Postérieur. A red sandstone piédroit found on the site bears these remains of 5 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: These five lines from another slavelist are all that is legible on a large piédroit. No recipient is mentioned, but the donor is probably the pu ˀ Dhar in line 1.


Catalog Number: K.30

Name: Piédroit of Čaṃnòm

Sources: C II: 26-8; AIC, I: 50-4, IV: 14.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date: C II: 26, note liminaire: ‘D’après son écriture, elle paraît dater du VIIe siècle’.

Provenance: Cœdès (C II: 26) locates Čaṃnòm in the sruk of Prei Krabàs, Tà Kèv province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 192, shows it lying 18 kilometers due northeast of Takéo and 7 kilometers northwest of Prei Phkãṃ (№ 5). The sandstone piédroit, which Cœdès calls ‘[le] dernier vestige du sanctuaire dont le texte relate la fondation’, measures l.40 x o.38 x o.10 meters, consists of 30 lines, the first 8 in Sanskrit, the remaining 21 in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription records gifts to a Śrī Yajñapatīśvara by a lord Kṛṣṇamitra, serving as yajamāna on behalf of six co-donors. The gifts include male and female slaves, six ricefields, and miscellaneous allowances for daily support. The text appears to be unfinished.


Catalog Number: K.31

Name: Piédroit of Phnoṃ Čisór

Sources: C II: 29-30; AIC, III: 1171-3; new reading, untranslated, received 2 July 2007 by courtesy of M. Dominique Soutif, hereafter DS.

Śaka date: (Śaka 951 = A.D. 1029)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Čisór see II, № 40, note 2. This inscription of 13 lines is from the north piédroit of the sanctuary’s north édicule. DSs new reading reveals a text showing a nearly consistent omission of the virāma, which I do not remark in my notes.

Synopsis: This damaged inscription records an offering by Sūryavarman I of two persons of rank, twelve sruk, and commodities to the High Lord of the World of Śrī Sūryaparvata. The text appears to have been both poorly planned and poorly executed, with the result that its sense is muddled and elusive.


Catalog Number: K.32

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Čisór

Sources: C II: 137-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1038 = A.D. 1116)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Čisór see II, № 41, note 2. This inscription, recovered by Aymonier, is from a sandstone stele found in the sanctuary on Phnoṃ Čisór and consists of 10 lines in Sanskrit followed by 9½ lines in Khmer and ending with an additional 1½ lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This 10-line inscription records pious works by a tapasvin known as My Holy High Lord of Vnaṃ Rhek: the gift and slaves, land and small articles to Śiva (Śrī Sūryaparvata), with an endowment provided by 29 persons associated with him. Free of lacunæ, the text is clear throughout and of routine grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.33/1°

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Čisór

Sources: C III: 148-52; AIC, III: 1174-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 939 = A.D. 1017)

Conventional date: This date is from the second inscription, B: 15. C III: 148: “… la seconde inscription commençant à la l. 15 pourrait bien être antérieure à la première dont les dernières lignes sont plus serrées que les précédentes comme par manque de place, et qui mentionne à la l. 15 une Tai Nīla dont l’affectation au temple est stipulée à la l. 25 de la seconde inscription.”

Provenance: Phnoṃ Čisór is an archeological site in the sruk of Samrong, Takéo province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 192 shows it 25 kilometers due northwest of Angkor Borei. A schist stele measuring 1.07 x o.31 meters found on the site bears two inscriptions, the present one of 14 lines, and a second of 36 lines called by Cœdès the ‘Stèle de Çivācārya Vnur Sramo’ after its author.

Synopsis: This short inscription records the purchase of a tract of land in the vicinity of Vyādhapura by an unnamed party, who establishes on it an āśrama to which he assigns four female slaves.


Catalog Number: K.33/2°

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Čisór

Sources: C III: 148-52; AIC, III: 1174-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 939 = A.D. 1017)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Čisór see № 40, note 2.

Synopsis: Following № 41 on the same stele, this 22-line inscription records a writ from Sūryavarman I validating the title of a steñ Śivācārya to land on which he had erected an āśrama and founded the community of Yogendrapura, dedicating both to the High Lord of the World Śrī Vṛddheśvara and offering both as a rājadharma. The text, well written and with few ambiguities, is noteworthy for maṅya in line 15, apparently an unidentified member of the duodenary cycle; for a rare nominative man in line 20; and for two cases (§5, §9) of the ellipsis of headless ta.


Catalog Number: K.34

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Čisór

Sources: C III: 152-6; AIC, III: 1180-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date: The inscription probably dates from the reign of Sūryavarman II (A.D. 1113-post 1145).

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Čisór, the ancient Sūryaparvata, see II, № 41, note 2. This inscription is on three sides of a sandstone stele. Face A bears 16 lines in Sanskrit followed by 2 lines in Khmer; face B bears 31 lines in Khmer, while the narrow face C bears 2 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This rather dry 31-line inscription records pious works by the eminent Divākara and the assignment of a group of 68 persons of rank (teṅ and loñ) to serve in the community of Rlāp Danlā. The limits of Rlāp Danlā and two other tracts are defined, but their purpose is unclear. From line 17 the text is taken up with allowances, while other persons of the same rank are assigned to the service of five named divinities. The main text ends in a brief varaśāpa with novel wording.


Catalog Number: K.37

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Nãṅ Khmau

Sources: C II: 35; AIC, I: 55-7, IV: 15.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Nãṅ Khmau see I, № 23, note 2. The schist slab bearing this inscription was found in the rubble of the sanctuary’s south tower, and originally comprised ten lines of which the first two have since been obliterated. Cœdès mentions that the text has been deliberately mutilated.

Synopsis: What follows exemplifies an inscription which has been deliberately mutilated. It is obviously not amenable to translation.


Catalog Number: K.38

Name: Stele of Vằt Tnòt

Sources: C II: 45-6; manuscript rereading by M. Claude Jacques.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Tnòt is located in the sruk of Bati, Tà Kèv province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 192, show it lying 30 kilometers due northeast of Takéo, 20 kilometers north-northwest of Aṅkor Bórĕi, 16 kilometers west of the Fleuve Postérieur, and 12 kilometers northwest of Phnom Chisor. The schist stele found at the site bears on one face an inscription of 15 lines in Khmer, each line cut short along the right side.

Synopsis: In contrast with the barrenness of № 46 and № 48, this inscription offers a text which is well organized, full of detail, and for the most part clear. The first ten lines report gifts to Svayambhū by a poñ Tāṅ, to all appearances one of a guild of royal executioners: ten ricefields (lines 3-7) and slaves (7-8). Lines 8-9 speak of images which he and his nephew received from a sovereign named Jayavarman, which he presumably includes in his gifts. Following a brief admonition (line 10), the remaining five lines stipulate oversight of the endowment, lacunæ preventing full understanding of what was written.


Catalog Number: K.41

Name: Stele of Vằt Prei Svà

Sources: C VI: 32-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Prei Svà is located in the sruk of Bati, Tà Kèv province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 192, shows it on the south shore of the Lac de Bati, about 43 kilometers due north-northeast of the provincial capital and 10 kilometers west of the Fleuve Postérieur.

Synopsis: This extraordinary inscription consists of ten passages, all but the first two having a similar structure. Each passage designates a ricefield sold to Śrī Piṅgaleśvara (Śiva) by one or more named individuals, states its productivity, then specifies what the donor received for it out of sanctuary property. The agent or agents of the sanctuary are not named.


Catalog Number: K.44

Name: Stele of Práḥ Kŭhã Lûoṅ

Sources: C II: 10-3; CJ ms; AIC I: 64-9, IV: 17; VS, 139-48.

Śaka date: (Śaka 596 = A.D. 674)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Tuesday, 10 October, A.D. 674, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 5).

Provenance: Práḥ Kŭhã Lûoṅ, also known as Kŭhã Kpàl Bótum, is a cave which Cœdès locates only ‘aux environs de Kằṃpot’ in the province of the same name. Standing at the cave’s mouth, the sandstone stele in question here measures o.87 x o.46 x o.09 meter and bears an inscription on both faces. Face A bears 14 lines, the first 5 in Sanskrit, the following 9 in Khmer; face B bears 13 lines in Khmer. The last two lines of face A, reporting the erection of the stele, were added at a later date and are here relegated to the end.

Synopsis: This inscription records an endowment in the name of Jayavarman I to an aspect of Śiva known as Śrī Utpanneśvara at Cnar: slaves, livestock, and land given to the divinity during the reign of a Raudravarman. The 21-line Khmer text closes with an admonition, noteworthy for its detail, to those who would desecrate the foundation. The text is well-written, for the most part clear, and full of instructive details.


Catalog Number: K.46

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Ṅôk

Sources: C VI: 34-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Ṅôk is a low hill located in Kŏṃpot province 6 kilometers east of the provincial capital. Aymonier, La Cambodge, I: map facing page 152, shows it 16 kilometers due east. The stele, estampée by Aymonier in one of the hill’s caves, has since disappeared. Face A bears an inscription of 11 lines of which the first 2 are in Sanskrit, the other 9 in Khmer. Face B bears 13 lines of which the first 4 are in Sanskrit, the remaining 9 being in Khmer.

Synopsis: The grammatical interest of this inscription is not great. Face A, frequently illegible, reports gifts (slaves, cattle, riceland, coconut and areca palms) made by an unnamed donor to an unidentified divinity through a lord Śiva as yajamāna; it ends in an illegible reference to Śrī Utpanneśvara. Face B, almost entirely legible, records gifts (slaves, cattle, riceland, coconut palms, a granary) made by a poñ Jñānakumāra to Śrī Utpanneśvara, apparently through the same yajamāna. A female grinders of aromatics and her child are furnished the latter, presumably as dakṣiṇā,


Catalog Number: K.48

Name: Fragment of Vằt Prei Čàrĕk

Sources: C VI: 27.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 82) assigns this text to Vằt Prei Črat, in Prei Vêṅ province. Cœdès locates Vằt Prei Čàrĕk in the khum of Čàm, khằnd of Trabèk, Prei Vêṅ province. This 2-line inscription, borne on one side of a square slab found at the site, is of interest as illustrating the difficulty of assigning undated texts to a specific century. While the engraving is ‘nettement pré-angkorienne’, the form kaṃmrateṅ in line 1 is ‘Angkorian’ while toṅ ‘coconut’ and tmur ‘cow’ in line 2 are ‘pre-Angkorian’. The sovereign mentioned is either Jayavarman I or Jayavarman I bis.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.49

Name: Stele of Vằt Prei Vãl

Sources: C VI: 6-9; AIC I: 70-3, IV: 18; VS, 93-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 586 = A.D. 664)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence to the date given in the eighth stanza of the Sanskrit part is Tuesday, 24 December 664 (Billard, 4).

Provenance: Cœdès (C VI: 6) places the modern temple of Vằt Prei Vãl in the khằnd of Trabèk, Prei Vêṅ province; on the modern map this corresponds to the sruk of Svay Rieng, Svay Rieng province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 240, shows it as ‘Prei Vier’, lying in the vicinity of Ba Phnom about 7 kilometers northwest of ‘Chih Rosei’ on the Vietnam frontier and some 55 kilometers due southwest of Tay Ninh. This inscription comprises 17 lines, the first 10 in Sanskrit, the last 7 in Khmer. For a summary of its content see Aymonier, op.cit., 248-9, where it is identified as ‘Prei Va’. Cœdès remarks (ibid.) that ‘Sa disparition est d’autant plus regrettable que c’est un document fort important qui fournit un des plus anciens témoignages sur l’existence du bouddhisme au Cambodge préangkorien, dans une région située précisément à proximité de l’ancienne capitale du Fou-Nan bouddhique’.

Synopsis: Dating from the reign of Jayavarman I, this challenging inscription is one of the earliest to document the practice of Buddhism in pre-Angkorian Cambodia. The brief Khmer text summarizes a royal order, given more fully in stanzas VI and VII of the Sanskrit text, relating to an endowment by two bhikṣu bearing the title pu caḥ ˀ ‘my elder lord’ and placing that endowment under the authority of their grand-nephew. It closes with a warning to those who would desecrate the endowment. The text contains much of grammatical and lexical value.


Catalog Number: K.51

Name: Inscription of Vằt Kdĕi Trẵp

Sources: C V: 14-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date: C V: 14: ‘Ce texte n’est pas daté, mais son écriture grossière et peu soignée présente de curieux archaïsmes, ….. qui rappellent les inscriptions du ve siècle. Mais je ne crois pas qu’il remonte aussi haut, c’est-à-dire à l’époque du Fou-nan, et il est possible que ces archaïsmes ….. s’expliquent ….. par une survivance de traditions graphiques anciennes dans la région où se trouvait autrefois la capitale du Fou-nan’.

Provenance: Vằt Kdĕi Trẵp is an abandoned temple in the vicinity of Bà Phnoṃ, sruk Bà Phnoṃ, Prei Vêṅ province. Bà Phnoṃ, though unnamed as such, is shown clearly on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 240. Unlike most bilinguals, this inscription, engraved on one face of a schist slab measuring 0.67 x o.60 x o.04 meter, consists of 17 lines in Khmer followed by 2 lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This inscription records gifts made to a divinity perhaps to be identified with Śrī Madhuripu, made by a lord Indradatta — who may be either the real donor or the yajamāna. The gifts, to be shared with another unidentified divinity and two individuals, include a plantation, a ricefield, and various categories of slaves: dancers, ple le, domestics, and field hands. The condition of the text is such that it offers little of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.52

Name: Stele of Vằt Krẵṅ Svày

Sources: C VI: 93-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 840 = A.D. 918)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Krẵṅ Svày is located in Prei Veng province about 29 kilometers due southeast of Ba Nam and 22 kilometers due east of the Mekong. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 240. The stele found at this site bears on one of its faces an inscription of 19 lines. Lines 1-6 are in Sanskrit, and include the date Śaka 840, while lines 7-12 are in Khmer; the first 12 lines are barely legible. Below a wide blank space, line 13 is in Khmer, lines 14-16 are in Sanskrit, lines 16-19 are in Khmer. The interest of the text, apart from its mention of the divinity Śrī Puṣkarākṣa, is chiefly onomastic.

Synopsis: Little can be done to extract meaning or purpose from this ruined inscription.


Catalog Number: K.54

Name: Inscription of Aṅg Čaṃnīk

Sources: C III: 157-62, where it is one of two Inscriptions de Kdĕi Aṅ; NIC II/III: 21-2; AIC I: 81, IV: 21.

Śaka date: (Śaka 551 = A.D. 628)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Tuesday, 12 April or the following day, A.D. 628, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 3).

Provenance: The sanctuary of Kdĕi Aṅ is located in Prei Vêṅ province, probably in the modern sruk of Preah Sdech. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 240 shows it 22 kilometers southeast of Banam on the Mékong; for a description of its precise location on the ground see op.cit., 240. Cœdès (C III: 158) notes that the site is located ‘dans le voisinage immédiat de Vyādhapura, l’ancienne capitale du Fou-nan’. He continues: ‘Le souvenir du Fou-nan se manifeste jusque dans l’écriture de l’inscription … De toutes les inscriptions de cette époque, c’est celle qui a conservé le plus de traits archaïques, et se rapproche le plus des inscriptions du Fou-nan. Les scribes et les graveurs des environs de l’ancienne capitale avaient su, mieux que ceux des régions plus éloignées, conserver certaines traditions graphiques du siècle précédent’. This inscription of 19 lines consists of 6 lines in Sanskrit followed by 12 lines in Khmer and 1 final line in Sanskrit. The text is laid out on one face of a stone measuring 2.57 x o.60 meters.

Synopsis: Recorded here are gifts of chattels, mostly slaves, by an ācārya Vidyāvinaya to an apparently newly erected liṅga of Śiva. The ācārya himself gives nine slaves, while ten donors are cited by name as giving other property. The structure of the text is straightforward and full of important grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.56

Name: Stele of Kděi Aṅ

Sources: C VII: 3-19.

Śaka date: (Śaka 9th century = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Kdě Aṅ in located in Prei Veng province about 14 kilometers south-southeast of Ba Phnoṃ. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 240, shows it 1 kilometer east of Phum Preah Plœung and the same distance north of Ta Tron. The present inscription is the third of four found at this site. It consists of a main text in Sanskrit covering the four faces of the stele proper, and three short texts in Sanskrit: one of a single line along all four faces of the plinth, another of a single line on two faces of the cornice, and another of two lines which may have originally been inscribed on all four faces of the plinth. The Khmer text is engraved on all four faces of the pedestal below. The lay-out of both the Sanskrit and the Khmer texts is regular: 24 lines of Sanskrit on each face, 12 lines of Khmer on faces A and B, 13 lines of Khmer on faces C and D.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.61

Name: Stele of Práḥ Vihãr Kŭk

Sources: C VII: 20-2; AIC, III: 1189-91 (face A only).

Śaka date: (Śaka 834 = A.D. 912)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Práḥ Vihãr Kŭk, also known as “Vat Chakret” is located on Ba Phnom in Prey Veng province, some 10 kilometers due east by south of Ba Nam on the Mekong. It is not shown on the map facing page 240 in Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I. Face A of the stele comprises 4 lines in Khmer, no longer legible, 10 lines in Sanskrit, and 1 final line in Khmer giving the date Śaka 834. Face B comprises 9 lines in Khmer, of which the first 4 are only partially legible. Cœdès (C VII: 20) remarks that the cursive writing is the same on both faces, while the six ten´ mentioned at the end of the Khmer text are clearly the six ‘charming women’ mentioned in the Sanskrit text. He notes further that the date 834 at the end of face A is not necessarily the year in which these women were given, but that there is no reason to believe face B is any later than face A.

Synopsis: The condition of this short, frustrating inscription makes analysis and coherent translation futile.


Catalog Number: K.66

Name: Stele of Snày Pol

Sources: C II: 51-3; AIC, 96-100, IV: 25.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date: C II: 51: ‘L’écriture de l’inscription, d’un type archaïque, à grands jambages, remonte au VIIe siècle’. The “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 87) gives ‘vie siècle’.

Provenance: The village of Snày Pol is located in the sruk of Prei Vêṅ, Prei Vêṅ province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 264, shows it 37 kilometers due east by north of Phnom-Penh. Found by Aymonier in the village temple, the stele in question is said to have come from either nearby phum Melop or phum Mébŏn. It is described (C II: 51) as made up of two slabs of schist with an inscription in Khmer on two faces. In Aymonier’s time face A consisted of 30 lines, face B 22 lines; Finot later made out only 29 on face A, 19 on face B, while the estampages available to Cœdès showed only 28 lines in face A, 18 on face B.

Synopsis: Face A of this inscription commemorates the setting up of an image of Viṣṇu and the assignment to him of some 50 slaves. Face B reports the setting up of an image of Bhagavatī (presumably Lakṣmī) and the assignment to her by three individuals of some 9 female slaves with 15 children. The grammatical interest of the text is limited.


Catalog Number: K.67

Name: Inscription of Vằt Kralằñ Thoṃ

Sources: C VII: 23-5, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe-xie siècles = A.D. 978-1177)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Kralằñ Thoṃ is located in the sruk of Sithor Sdằm, Prei Veng province. It is briefly described by Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: 258, as an artificial hill which he names ‘Phum Préi Krelanh Thom’, on which an ancient sanctuary once stood. Found at the site was a stone, broken in two, ‘a cubit and a span in length and nine fingers in height’, forming the base (pallãṅka) for an image of the Buddha. It original bore an inscription of some 12 lines in Khmer on all four sides; still partly legible are 10 lines on face A, 6 lines on faces B and C, 8 lines on face D.

Synopsis: A ruined inscription, its condition obscuring its sense and purpose.


Catalog Number: K.70B

Name: Stele of Bàsằk

Sources: C II: 58-61.

Śaka date: (Śaka 9th century = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: The date given is that of the “Liste générale des inscriptions du Cambodge” (C VIII: 87), but may be amended to A.D. 952-61 on the basis of Cœdès’s comments at C II: 59.

Provenance: The ruins of ancient Bàsằk are located in the sruk of Rumduol, Svay Rieng province, about 30 kilometers due west-southwest of Tay Ninh. They are not shown in Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 240. The stele is engraved on two sides. Face A consists of 19 lines in Sanskrit plus five fragments on a piece separated from the stone. Face B consists of 2 more lines of Sanskrit, followed by 14 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.71

Name: Stele of Bàsằk

Sources: C II: 54-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 9th century = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Bàsằk see K.70B and my note 2. As Cœdès explains (C II: 54), the beginning of this inscription is lacking, the line numbers used here being those of the remainder. As found during the 1901-2 season, the stele was broken into two parts and before it could be conveyed to the Musée de l’École Française the left side vanished, though not before two Lottin de Laval estampages had been made of it. An estampage à la chinoise was made of the right part after its delivery to the museum. Cœdès’s transcription shows the text of the left part in italics. Our linguistic purpose makes it unnecessary to preserve this distinction.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.72

Name: Stele of Tûol Pràsàt

Sources: C VI: 114, text only, with corrections in C VII: 130, note 1; translation at C VII: 135-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 9th century = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: In 1983 M. Claude Jacques was of the opinion that this text might be ascribed to the Śaka 6th or 7th century, but its orthography points clearly to the Angkorian period.

Provenance: Tûol Pràsàt, known to Aymonier as Tuol Preah Théat, is located in sruk Rumduol, Prei Veng province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 240, shows it roughly 12 kilometers west of the frontier and about 37 kilometers west by south of Tay Ninh. The small stele bearing this 9-line inscription is a lapidary palimpsest, having been engraved after a pre-Angkorian inscription had been chiseled off. The text was clearly never finished. It was published by Cœdès in 1954 in C VI: 114 without an accompanying translation, on the grounds that “Aymonier en a tiré à peu près tout ce qu’on peut en tirer.” See Aymonier, op.cit., 250-1. Ten years later Cœdès published a translation in C VII: 135-6, together with corrections (C VII: 130, note 1) to his earlier reading of the text.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.73 and K.718

Name: Stele of Vằt Práḥ Thãt

Sources: C VI: 37 (K.73), C VI: 52 (K.718); neither text is translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date: C VI: 37 states that ‘l’aspect de l’écriture permit de [la] dater du viie siècle’. C VI: 52 assigns K.718 to the same century.

Provenance: Cœdès (C VI: 37) assigns K.73 to a Vằt Práḥ Thãt in Kompong Speu province, on the right bank of the Prêk Tnòt in the sruk of Kandàl Stưng. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 192, shows it 12 kilometers south of Phnom-Penh, 45 kilometers north of Aṅkor Bòrĕi, and 52 kilometers north-northeast of Takéo. Modern maps, following changes in territorial boundaries, show it in Kandàl province, as does the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 86). K.718, now vacant, is assigned to Popél in nearby Tà Kèv province; this may be incorrect, inasmuch as the transcriptions of the estampages of the two inscriptions are identical except for minor differences of readings. The schist stele bears an inscription of 15 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This short inscription, not without interest, is chiefly occupied with gifts (slaves, ricefields, cattle, coconut palms) conveyed to an unnamed divinity by three individuals including the yajamāna.


Catalog Number: K.74

Name: Inscription of Vằt Práḥ Nirpãn

Sources: C VI: 18-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 619 = A.D. 697)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Wednesday, 19 September, A.D. 697, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 7).

Provenance: Phum Práḥ Nirpãn lies in the sruk of Koṅ Pisĕi, Kompong Speu province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 192, shows ‘Préah Nirpéan’ on the right bank of the ‘Prêk Tenot’, about 39 kilometers due west of the Fleuve Postérieur. The village (see op.cit., 209) is on the site of an ancient brick tower. One of two inscriptions found at the local temple, given here, is on a slab of blackish basalt and consists of 9 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: These nine lines record the gift of slaves to a Śrī Kanakaleśvara made by a poñ Tnaḥ Kmau through a yajamāna identified only as poñ vastrapāla (also vasanapāla). Three slaves and one child are also given apparently as the yajamāna’s fee. Lacunæ obscure the sense of lines 7-8, but the content appears well organized and otherwise clear.


Catalog Number: K.76

Name: Piédroit of Phnoṃ Hó Phnou

Sources: C V: 7, with no translation; new reading by M. Claude Jacques; AIC, I: 101-4, IV: 26; VS, 112-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Hó Phnou is a hill in the sruk of Koṅ Pisĕi, Kompong Speu province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 192, locates it 35 kilometers due west of the Fleuve Postérieur, the same distance due north of Takéo, about 32 kilometers southwest of Phnom-Penh, and 10 kilometers due south of the Prêk Tnot. The schist slab bearing this inscription of 18 lines in Khmer was found amidst débris on top of the hill. The opening lines are missing, and the text begins with a slavelist.

Synopsis: This inscription, damaged and illegible in parts, is of considerable grammatical interest. It consists entirely of lists of several categories of slaves, five tracts of riceland, two granaries, paddy, coconut palms, a plantation, and cattle. No mention is made either of the donor(s) of this property or of the divinity to whom it is given.


Catalog Number: K.78 and K.786

Name: Inscription of Phnoṃ Bàsĕt

Sources: K.78: C VI: 12-3; K.786: C VII: 107; CJ ms of K.78.

Śaka date: (Śaka 59x = A.D. 678)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is ‘entre 668 et 678’, by the Julian calendar. K.786 reads navatyuttarapañcaśataśakaparigraha, ‘the year 590 of the Śaka dominion’, i.e. A.D. 668. This cannot be safely accepted for K.78 because of the opening lacuna, which must correspond to śūnya or a numeral.

Provenance: Phnoṃ Bàsĕt, to be distinguished from the community of Bàsĕt in Batdambang province (vid. № 13), is a wooded granitic hill with twin peaks located in the sruk of Bàsĕt, Kompong Speu province, about 42 kilometers due southwest of Phnom-Penh. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 224, shows it 20 kilometers due south-southwest of ‘Oudong’; for a description of the site see op.cit., 218-9. The text of K.78, on a slab of black schist measuring 0.78 x o.54 x o.09 meter, comprises 23 lines in Khmer. Lines 11-23 are the same as K.786, said to have come from Tûol Vằt Čàs, sruk of Loṅvêk, in neighboring Kompong Chhnang province. Neither Cœdès nor M. Jacques translate the text.

Synopsis: This inscription, of minor interest except to the student of onomastics, is a straightforward record of gifts – some 110 slaves but also ricefields, areca and coconut palms – conveyed by a yajamāna named Dhautama□□□□ to a divinity whose name is no longer legible.


Catalog Number: K.79

Name: Stele of Bhavavarman II

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Inscription de Bhavavarman II,” in BEFEO, IV (1904): 691; C II: 69-72, where it is titled ‘Stèle de Tà Kèv (?)’; AIC I: 105-9, IV: 27.

Śaka date: (Śaka 561 = A.D. 644)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Monday, 5 January, A.D. 644, approximately 09:14 hours, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 4). C II: 70, note 5: ‘561 çaka. Cette date a été calculé par A. Barth comme équivalent au décembre 639 A.D. ancien style (BEFEO, IV, p. 696)’.

Provenance: The provenance of this inscription is unknown, though Cœdès (C II: 69) surmises that it may be Takeo (Tà Kèv) province. The text comprises 24 lines of which the first 6 are in Sanskrit, the remaining 18 in Khmer.

Synopsis: Recorded here are gifts of ten ricefields to Durgā by a lord Īśānapavitra and a group of sixteen co-donors. The text, of routine grammatical interest, offers further examples of the inversion of the demonstrative pronoun (§8).


Catalog Number: K.80

Name: Stele of Vằt Prei Vêṅ

Sources: C VI: 3; AIC, I: 110-2, IV: 28.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Prei Vêṅ is a temple in a village in Kandàl province which Aymonier (Le Cambodge, I: 219) identified as Svai Chno, shown on op.cit., map facing page 224, as located 14 kilometers due southwest of Phnom-Penh on the left bank of the ‘Prêk Tnot’. Found in a shrine attached to the temple is a stele bearing a 10-line inscription consisting of 7 lines in Sanskrit, followed by 3 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: The 7 lines of Sanskrit with which this short inscription begins record an endowment to an unnamed āśrama by a lady (?) Vidyādeva. The following 3 lines in Khmer list the gifts in question. The grammatical interest of the text in minimal and the successive passages require no description.


Catalog Number: K.85

Name: Stele of Prêk Krabau

Sources: C VII: 28-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 903 = A.D. 981)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Kompong Prêk Krabau is located in Kompong Cham province in the vicinity of the hamlet of ‘Krelong’, shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 336, as lying on the left bank of the ‘Prêk Péam Chkang’ 10 kilometers east-northeast of ‘Kompong Siem’ and roughly 35 kilometers east of Kompong Cham. The stele found at this site is incomplete, its unfinished first line being followed by a blank space below which come six final lines.

Synopsis: The purpose of this 7-line scrap is hard to fathom but the text is well worth study for the sake of several grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.88

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Non

Sources: C VII: 30-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka 925 = A.D. 1003)

Conventional date: The figure 9 is uncertain and could be 10. See C VII: 30, also loc.cit., 31, note 5. The ‘Liste générale … ‘ (C VIII: 91) gives ‘925 (ou 1025 ?)’.

Provenance: Práḥ Non, used by Cœdès at C VII: 30, is the same as the Práḥ Ṇan used at C III: 164 for K.89. The name refers to a group of ruins in northern Kompong Cham province, which Cœdès here locates in the sruk of Čơṅ Prei, the ‘Chĕung Prei’ of Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 320, and the ‘Cheung Prey’ of modern maps. This inscription of 11 lines in Khmer is from the south piédroit of édicule F.

Synopsis: This inscription records the pious work of an unnamed holy person (vraḥ), possibly with an associate, who acquires land and on it builds an āśrama which he offers up to the High Lord of the World Śrī Jalāṅgeśvara, adding a herd of cattle, a garden, and allowances of food, one for Jalāṅgeśvara, another for the Sacred Fire. Despite lacunæ the text is well-written and for the most part clear, but is of minor grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.89

Name: Stele of Práḥ Ṇan

Sources: C III: 164-9; AIC, III: 1192-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 924 = A.D. 1002)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Práḥ Ṇan is a group of ruins in northern Kompong Cham province, probably in the modern sruk of Chamkar or Prey Chhor. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 320, shows it as ‘Bos Preah Nân’ on the left bank of the ‘Sting Khya’, 30 kilometers due north of the Mékong, 42 kilometers due east of the Tonlé Sap river; see also his sketch map on page 324. This inscription of 29 lines was found by Aymonier, probably in 1890, between two eminences named Kŭk Thoṃ and Kŭk Tóč.

Synopsis: In this inscription a Śrī Pṛthivīndrapaṇḍita presents an āśrama to the sovereign and makes an endowment of land, five slaves, and small items to Bhadreśvara at Liṅgapura, another endowment of foodstuffs, six tracts of land, and fourteen slaves to the High Lord of the World Śrī Jalāṅgeśvara. How the donor acquired the fourteen slaves is stated in unusual detail in lines 18-29. Free of lacunæ, the text is well-written and for the most part clear, and includes, along with several ambiguities, some novel grammatical features.


Catalog Number: K.90

Name: Stele of Kŭk Trapẵṅ Srŏk10

Sources: C V: 25-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date: The inscription dates at the earliest from the reign of Jayavarman VI (A.D. 1080-1107).

Provenance: Kŭk Práḥ Kŏt is the name of a small pre-Angkorian sanctuary in the khằnd of Čơṅ Prei in Kompong Cham province (C V: 25). The frame of its portal bears three inscriptions. On one section or edge of its lintel are 4 lines in Sanskrit with, to the right of the Sanskrit, 4 lines in Khmer which begin the Khmer text above. The south piédroit bears an inscription of 18 or 20 lines, all but 2 lines illegible; the north piédroit bears an inscription of 18 lines, of which 12 lines in Khmer on one of its edges end the text.

Synopsis: From the point of view of grammar, style and genealogy this is a most interesting inscription. Its purpose is to revalidate title to lands granted by Indravarman I and his successors down to Harṣavarman III to a line of ecclesiastics represented by two or more authors writing in the first person; one of the latter is probably the eminent Divākarapaṇḍita. Despite lacunæ and a few textual obscurities the exposition is well organized and clear, and includes a number of turns of expression which are both uncommon and felicitous.


Catalog Number: K.98

Name: Bantãy Prei Nokor Slab

Sources: C VII: 32.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Cœdès (loc.cit.) notes that the slab (dalle) on the side of which this inscription is engraved was described by Aymonier as ‘une pierre noire, bien taillée, sorte de table semblable à un socle plat et carré, mais non trouée, mesurant 0 m. 40 de côté et o m. 06 d’épaisseur’. Of the seven akṣara comprising the text the third is illegible, and the word in question ‘devait désigner cette espèce de table à offrande appartenant à, ou offerte par, une femme qualifiée de Tāṅ Añ’.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.99

Name: Inscription of Čơṅ Aṅ

Sources: C VI: 107-12; lines S: 1-7 are given in AIC, I: 290-2 and labeled incomplete.

Śaka date: (Śaka 854 = A.D. 932)

Conventional date: In view of the reign of Jayavarman IV (A.D. 928-942), I follow M. Claude Jacques in revising the date to Śaka 854 (A.D. 932). C VI: 108 reads ‘844 çaka’.

Provenance: The tower of Čơṅ Aṅ (Jeṅ Oṅ) is located in Kompong Cham province, about 20 kilometers due northeast of Bantãy Prei Nokor. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 280, shows it at about 45 kilometers due east of the Mekong and 20 kilometers due east of ‘Srelâp.’ This inscription, in Khmer except for one Sanskrit śloka, is from the two piédroits at the sanctuary’s entrance.

Synopsis: This inscription records an order from Jayavarman IV to combine the revenues of Śrī Tribhuvanaikanātha and Śrī Cāmpeśvara and to allocate certain provisions for the latter. Three notables associated with the merger assign slaves chiefly for the cultivation of ricefields at five locations, those listed on the south piédroit being for the fortnight of the waning moon, those on the north piédroit for the fortnight of the waxing moon. The text, rich in grammatical details, is well-ordered but vague as to the donors of the slaves.


Catalog Number: K.105/1°

Name: Inscription of Phum Mîen

Sources: C VI: 183-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 804 = A.D. 882)

Conventional date: As Cœdès explains (C VI: 183), the middle figure is of unusual form and could be a 2 or a 3. Aymonier, op.cit., 282, had the same uncertainty. I am indebted to Professor J.C. Eade for a revised calculation.

Provenance: Phum Mîen is placed in Kompong Cham province in the ‘Liste générale …’ (C VIII: 92) but is more likely now to be in Prey Veng province. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 280, showing it about 63 kilometers south-southwest of Kroch Chhmar. I place it 23 kilometers due south of the large island in the bend of the Mekong. This inscription is on the south piédroit of the entry into the sanctuary, and is the earliest of three dated texts on the same stone.

Synopsis: In this short inscription an unnamed sovereign instructs a lord Śrī Vikramasaṃnāha to set up the image of an unnamed divinity in Vrai Vyak. In the sovereign’s name Vikramasaṃnāha and an associate convey to the divinity a considerable number of sruk and nine slaves. The text is unique in affixing a date to the royal directive (line 2) and in employing a topicalized genitive dependent noun phrase in the closing admonition.


Catalog Number: K.105/2°

Name: Inscription of Phum Mîen

Sources: C VI: 183-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 908 = A.D. 986)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phum Mîen see № 14, note 2. This is the second of three inscriptions on the south piédroit of the entry into the sanctuary.

Synopsis: This 5-line inscription records a royal directive to a vāp Hṛdayaśiva to give a ricefield to Bhagavatī. For reasons not entirely clear the vāp, already engaged in a pious work, has no field to give and the sovereign’s order is fulfilled by a vāp Sip.


Catalog Number: K.105/3°

Name: Inscription of Phum Mîen

Sources: C VI: 183-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 909 = A.D. 987)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phum Mîen see my № 14, note 2. This inscription is the third of three from the south piédroit of the sanctuary’s entry.

Synopsis: This inscription of 9 lines registers the names of slaves assigned to Bhagavatī by a territorial governor.


Catalog Number: K.107

Name: Fragment of Práḥ Thãt Khnai Van

Sources: C VI: 38.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Práḥ Thãt Khnai Van is a ruined brick tower in the sruk of Reang Ov, Kompong Cham province. It is probably located in or near phum Prasat, also known as phum ‘Preah Théat’, shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 280, as lying about 3 kilometers due south of phum Mien and the same distance south of the ‘Lac ou Beng Preah Pit’. A stone fragment found on the site bears an inscription in Khmer of which only 7 lines are now legible.

Synopsis: These seven lines concern the assignment of four ponds, a rich source of fish and aquatic comestibles, to Svayambhū, to a divinity known as Nāriya, and to Śrī Śaṃkaranārāyaṇa. Despite its brevity the inscription contains grammatical details that add to our store of knowledge.


Catalog Number: K.109N

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Práḥ Thãt

Sources: C V: 41-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka 577 = A.D. 656)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Wednesday, 10 February, A.D. 656, approximately 08:32 hours, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 4).

Provenance: Pràsàt Práḥ Thãt, located in Kompong Cham province, is a group of three sanctuaries lying some 18 kilometers south of Kompong Cham, in the sruk of O Reang Ov. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 280, shows it the same distance east of ‘Beng Preah Pit’. K.109S, from the south piédroit of the south sanctuary, consists of only 6 lines in Sanskrit. The north face of the inscription, apparently unrelated to the latter, is from the north piédroit of the same structure and consists of 25 lines, of which the first 10 are in Sanskrit, the remaining 15 being in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription records the gift of slaves to a śivaliṅga known as ‘of the Śrī Rudramahālaya’. The principal donor is the kurāk of Vyādhapura, whose slaves are cited by name. A second donor is a lady (tāñ) Suvarṇa, whose slaves are not enumerated. Despite erratic punctuation the structure of the document is clear and simple. Its value of chiefly onomastic, though the last passage illustrates the compound relative clause.


Catalog Number: K.114

Name: Stele of Svày Sằt Phnoṃ

Sources: C VI: 20, without translation.

Śaka date: (Śaka 620? = A.D. 699?)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is 6[98]/6[99] (Billard, 7). C VI: 21, note 1: ‘Les deux premiers caractères : viṅço sont très douteux’.

Provenance: Svày Sằt Phnoṃ is a site on the left bank of the Mékong in the sruk of Srei Santhor, Kompong Cham province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 264, shows it 33 kilometers due southwest of Kompong Cham, 46 kilometers due northeast of Phnom-Penh.

Synopsis: All that remains legible of this 28-line inscription is the first 6 lines, which record the gift of an image of a Śrī Vacasvīśvara and slaves to an unnamed sanctuary by two sons of a lord Upatyasvāmi.


Catalog Number: K.115

Name: Stele of Sóphãs

Sources: C VI: 10-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka 587 = A.D. 665)

Conventional date: As given in the first four lines: Śaka 587, the ninth day of the first fortnight of Jyeṣṭha, Leo being on the horizon, to which is added the position of the planets. The Common Era correspondence is Thursday, 29 May, A.D. 665, approximately 09:12 hours, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 4).

Provenance: The village of Sóphãs is located in the sruk of Stung Trang, Kompong Cham province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 336, shows it lying 10 kilometers west of the Mékong, 28 kilometers due north of Kompong Cham. The modern temple of Vằt Sóphãs, on the south side of the village, is built on the site of four brick towers dating from pre-Angkorian times. Found at the temple was a stele 1 meter high, o.33 meter wide, o.11 meter thick which Cœdès describes (C VI: 10) as “une mauvaise pierre à gros grains.” The inscription on its single face comprises 18 lines: 4 in Sanskrit, 14 in Khmer.

Synopsis: This simply structured text records the setting up of a liṅga (line 4) identified as that of Śrī Āmrātakeśvara (line 6) and the gift to it of 49 slaves and three plots of riceland. The donors are a kloñ Bau ˀAñ and the mother of a poñ Nirjitasiṃha. The gifts are placed under the management of a poñ Candravindu.


Catalog Number: K.124

Name: Inscription of Văt Tasar Moroy

Sources: C III: 170; AIC, I: 126-30, IV: 32; VS, 157-66.

Śaka date: (Śaka 725 = A.D. 804)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is 803/804, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 6).

Provenance: This text, from ancient Śambhupura (Sambor) on the Mékong, is inscribed on a stone 1.11 meters high and o.47 meter wide. It comprises 2 lines in Sanskrit, 19 lines in Khmer, 4 more lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: Whereas the date of this inscription places it one or two years after the conventional beginning of the Angkorian period, it contains only nine items conforming to Angkorian orthographic practice as against eighteen items following the pre-Angkorian tradition. It is taken here as the last (or one of the last) of the dated pre-Angkorian inscriptions. The text reports an endowment to Śrīmad Āmrātaka made by a princess Jyeṣṭhāryā (so named in line 22) and two persons associated with her. This princess, denominated queen (rājñī) in line 23, is identified as the daughter of a Śrī Jayendra□rabhā, a grand-daughter of a Śrī Nṛpendradevī, and a great-granddaughter of a defunct sovereign named Śrī Indraloka. The gifts in question comprise commodities and other property for the maintenance of clerics and servants as well as the divinity.


Catalog Number: K.125

Name: Piédroit of Tûol Koṃnăp Tà Kiṅ

Sources: BEFEO, XXVIII (1928).1-2: 140-4; AIC, III: 1198-1202.

Śaka date: (Śaka 923 = A.D. 1001)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Koṃnăp Tà Kiṅ is a site 3 kilometers north of Saṃbór in Kratié province. It is probably the ‘ruines’ shown by Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 296, a short distance south of ‘(Phum) Tenot Chroum’, 6 kilometers north of ‘Phum Sambaur’. This inscription of 23 lines is engraved on a grey sandstone piédroit from the portal of one of the ruined towers on the site and measures 1.77 x o.61 x o.17 meters,

Synopsis: This inscription quotes, and hence implies royal approval of, a petition submitted to Jayavarman V by the vāp Dīrgha Hor for revalidation of his family’s claim to certain pious works in Śambhupura. The text, well-written but obfuscated by the writer’s deference, is rich in grammatical detail.


Catalog Number: K.126

Name: Stele of Tûol Kôk Pràsàt

Sources: C VII: 33, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Kôk Pràsàt is a low hill near Sambór on the Mékong. Recovered from the site were these two fragments of a broken stele.

Synopsis: These two fragments are included here simply because they exist.


Catalog Number: K.127

Name: Piédroit of Sambór

Sources: C II: 89; AIC I: 131-5, IV: 33.

Śaka date: (Śaka 605 = A.D. 684)

Conventional date: C II: 89, note 4: ‘Cette date[,] qu’il faut peut-être lire 604, est la plus ancienne date, connue au Cambodge, employant des chiffres en valeur de position (avec le zéro). … ‘. L.C. Damais, in BEFEO, XLVI: 98, note 1, favors the year 604. The Common Era correspondence is A.D. 683/684 by the Julian calendar (Billard, 5).

Provenance: The ruins of Sambór lie on the left bank of the Mékong about 35 kilometers north of Kračeḥ. Discovered in 1891 in the phum of Trapẵṅ Prei (located amidst the ruins) is a sandstone piédroit missing its upper part and bearing 22 lines of an inscription of which the first 8 are cut off on the right.

Synopsis: The stone bearing this inscription is missing its upper part while its first eight lines are amputated on the right. Following three lines of a slavelist and a dateline, it reports two endowments. The first (lines 5-11) consists of gifts to Viṣṇu (named Śrī Amareśvara) made by a lord Vidyākīrti: slaves, animals, and sanctuary personnel with an allowance of rice for their support. This much ends (lines 11-13) with a promise of felicity for those who overcome ignorance (svāṅ) at the unnamed sanctuary and a promise of damnation for those who misappropriate the chattels given. The second endowment (lines 13-20) consists of slaves and livestock given by a lord Īśvaravindu to Śiva in the form of a golden liṅga, as well as to Maṇiśiva, to be shared with the above Amareśvara. This ends in another promise of damnation for those who desecrate the premises.


Catalog Number: K.128

Name: Piédroit from Sambór

Sources: C II: 87-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1126 = A.D. 1204)

Conventional date:

Provenance: All that is known of the provenance of this 9-line inscription is that it comes from the ruins of Sambór in Kračeḥ province.

Synopsis: A short but most interesting inscription, offering several turns of expression not previously encountered and taxing the ingenuity of the grammarian. Full understanding of the text is limited by frustrating lacunæ.


Catalog Number: K.129

Name: Piédroit of Sambór

Sources: C II: 83; AIC, I: 136-40.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Sambór see № 26, note 2. Found in 1891 at Tà Kiṅ in the group of ruins is a sandstone piédroit measuring 2.06 x o.60 x o.16 meters and comprising 22 lines in Khmer, of which the last 2 are in larger characters.

Synopsis: This inscriptions records gifts to Śrī Maṇḍaleśvara by a poñ whose name is illegible and who may be serving as yajamāna. The first 20 lines list 126 adult slaves with 14 children, while the last 2 lines list 3 ricefields and cattle. Except for one lexical morass in line 5, the text offers no meat for the grammarian.


Catalog Number: K.133 and K.480

Name: Inscription of Trapẵṅ Thma

Sources: C V: 81-2 (K.133), not translated; II: 191-2 (K.480), not translated; new reading by M. Claude Jacques.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Trapẵṅ Thma is part of the Saṃbór group in Kratié province; for the location of Saṃbór see № 26, note 2. Some twenty years ago M. Jacques or I discovered that the text of K.133/I° is identical with that of K.480, entitled ‘Inscription de provenance inconnue’ and assigned to Śaka vie siècle (C II: 191-2); of K.480 Cœdès opines that ‘Il est probable que cette inscription provient de la région de Kračèḥ …’ Of the two texts K.133/I° is the fuller, K.480 being transcribed from a clearly inferior estampage of the same stone; K.480 might be vacated were it not for the fact that it includes a few forms not found in K.133. The text given here incorporates forms from the transcription by M. Jacques from estampages of both inscriptions.

Synopsis: The first face of this inscription lists roughly 143 slaves given to an unnamed divinity by a mahānauvāha — evidently the master of a sea-going vessel. The second face lists slaves and riceland given to Śrī Vimaleśvara by a lord Rudravindu.


Catalog Number: K.134

Name: Piédroit of Lobơk Srót

Sources: C II: 92-4. AIC I: 144-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 703 = A.D. 781)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is 781/782, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 6). The date, Śaka 703, is given in the fourth Sanskrit stanza.

Provenance: Cœdès (C II: 92) locates the ruins of Lobơk Srót about 40 kilometers northeast of Kračèḥ, which places it in the sruk of Sambor, Kratié province. A sandstone piédroit found at the site in 1905 bears this inscription of 29 lines, the first 9 of which are in Sanskrit, the remaining 20 in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription, of minor grammatical interest, is a good source of onomastic and toponymic data. Lines 4-9 state that an image of a Śrī Siddheśvara was set up by a Parameśvaravallabha under an unidentified sovereign named Jayavarman. The Khmer text lists chattels for the support of the divinity: sanctuary personnel, slaves recruited apparently from (or for service at) five localities, ricefields, a plantation, other lands, and livestock. The terseness of the style is uncommon: most of the slavelists lack the usual labels and ku, while in three cases (lines 21, 24, 25) ricefields and other lands are mentioned without being located.


Catalog Number: K.135

Name: Piédroit of Lobơk Srót

Sources: C II: 95, untranslated; AIC, I: 150, IV: 37.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Lobơk Srót see № 40, note 2. A piédroit found at the site in 1905 bears this inscription of 3 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This fragment of three lines records the gift to Śiva of 11 female slaves and 6 children. Its grammatical interest is slight.


Catalog Number: K.136C

Name: Stele of Loṅvêk

Sources: C VI: 284-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The provenance of this stele is in doubt, and Cœdès (C VI: 286, note 10) surmises that it came from Dviradapura, not yet located. The common attribution is to Loṅvÿek (Lovêk), the former capital located in Kŏṃpoṅ Čhnằṅ province, sruk of Kampong Tralach, about 1 kilometer west of the Tonle Sap river; see also the pre-Angkorian volume, № 62, note 2. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: 215-6, describes the stone in some detail. Face A bears 31 lines in Sanskrit, face B 35 lines in Sanskrit; the narrower face C bears 45 irregular lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: An unremarkable list of offerings to 15 divinities made by a Śaṃkarapaṇḍita, showing the minimum of grammar.


Catalog Number: K.137

Name: Piédroit of Loṅvêk

Sources: C II: 115; AIC, I: 151-7, IV: 38; VS, 100.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The origin of this stone, a sandstone piédroit, is uncertain. According to Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: 135, it is said to have been brought to Saigon from the vicinity of Loṅvêk, Kompong Chhnang province, by Doudart de Lagrée. Cœdès (C II: 115) is inclined to think it may have come from ‘southern Cambodia’, by which he probably means Cochinchina. The stone bears an inscription of 35 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: Apart from the lengthy slavelists it contains, this inscription of 35 lines is challenging and instructive. It reports a royal order addressed to a yajamāna identified only by his title, pu neṅ sevabhāra. The order is chiefly concerned with the disposition of slaves given by an unnamed sovereign to various unnamed divinities, slaves who are apparently to be redistributed among a number of communities. The last 9 lines of the text list additional slaves given by the yajamāna and four individuals associated with him. The rendering offered here is less than definitive.


Catalog Number: K.138

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Tóč

Sources: C V: 18-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 542 = A.D. 620)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is 620/621 (Billard, 3).

Provenance: Pràsàt Tóč is located in the sruk of Kompong Leng, Kompong Chhnang province. As Cœdès describes it (C V: 18), it lies 300 meters west and a little north of the Pràsàt Práḥ Srĕi group. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 352, shows the latter monument about 5 kilometers northwest of Samrong Sen and about 30 kilometers northeast of the town of Kompong Chhnang. This text of 30 lines, all in Khmer, is from the south piédroit of the sanctuary’s portal. Its interest is almost entirely onomastic. Cœdès furnishes a summary in lieu of a translation.

Synopsis: The purpose of this inscription is to record the gift of chattels to a Śrī Prabhāsasomeśvara. Seven or eight donors are cited. The slaves are listed by name and are categorized. The text is a source of valuable onomastic and lexical data.


Catalog Number: K.139B

Name: Stele of Phum Dàs

Sources: C III: 175-9; AIC, II: 649-55.

Śaka date: (Śaka 976 = A.D. 1054)

Conventional date: The date is given on face A: 8 (stanza IV).

Provenance: Phum Dà is a village in Kompong Chhnang province situated about 4 kilometers southwest of the prehistoric site of Saṃroṅ Sèn and the same distance due east of Phnom Tûk Meas. It is shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 352, while a description of the village and a summary of the inscription are given at loc. cit., 361-3.

Synopsis: This mercifully brief inscription, contrasting with the masterful lucidity of № 75, lacks the definition we have come to expect and poses several problems of interpretation.


Catalog Number: K.140

Name: Stone of Vằt Bàrày

Sources: C VI: 14-5; CJ ms.

Śaka date: (Śaka 598 = A.D. 676)

Conventional date: This date, given in the Sanskrit stanza, is Śaka 598, the eleventh day of the month of Jyeṣṭha. The Common Era correspondence is Thursday, 29 May or the next day, A.D. 676, approximately 19:45 hours (Billard, 5).

Provenance: The modern temple of Vằt Bàrày is located in the sruk of Bàrày, Kompong Thom province, and is presumably in the phum of Bàrày, 42 kilometers due south-southeast of Kompong Thom and some 90 kilometers due northeast by north of Phnom-Penh. As Cœdès reports (C VI: 14), this inscription was found on an ancient piédroit reused as a lintel, a circumstance which cut off the last six or seven characters of each line. It comprises 16 lines, the first 2 in Sanskrit, the remaining 14 in Khmer; these last may have been followed by two or three more lines. The object of the text was to mark the setting up of an image of Śiva.

Synopsis: This short text records the gift of male and female slaves to Śaṃkaranārāyaṇa by one or more ‘neighboring lords’. Neither the location of the divinity nor the identity of the donors is mentioned. The inscription is of onomastic value.


Catalog Number: K.143A

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Tnòt Čŭṃ

Sources: C VI: 218-23.

Śaka date: (Śaka 899 = A.D. 977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Tnòt Čŭṃ is located in sruk Bàrày, Kŏṃpoṅ Thoṃ province, about 35 kilometers due southeast of the provincial seat. Its position (‘Tenot Choum’) is shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 352, and the sandstone stele which he found at the site is briefly described in loc. cit., 352-3. All four faces of the stele bear inscriptions in Khmer: face A (Śaka 874 and 899), 27 lines; face B, 25 lines; the two narrow sides have 25 lines on face C, 22 lines on face D. The four texts appear to be independent though related.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.143BCD

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Tnòt Čŭṃ

Sources: C VI: 218-23.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Tnòt Čŭṃ is located in sruk Bàrày, Kŏṃpoṅ Thoṃ province, about 35 kilometers due southeast of the provincial seat. Its position is shown (‘Tenot Choum’) on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 352, and the sandstone stele which he found at the site is briefly described in loc. cit., 352-3. All four faces of the stele bear inscriptions in Khmer: face A (Śaka 874 and 899), 27 lines; face B, 25 lines of which the first 14 are ruined. The two narrow sides have 25 lines on face C, 22 lines on face D. The four texts clearly related but probably independent.

Synopsis: These three faces of K.143 are annexed to the first face in which a lord Śrī Saṅgrāmadāruṇa sues for the royal benefice of a tract of land at Vrai Raṃtyaṅ with a view to dedicating it to two divinities. The grant is made, but 25 years later the land has not been so dedicated; a royal directive has the land resurveyed and offered up to the divinities. Face B is mainly concerned with a requirement to pronounce blessings on those who safeguard the grant and curses on those who despoil it. Face C lists slaves attached to the land, while face D adds minor details.


Catalog Number: K.145

Name: Phum Pràsàt Fragment

Sources: C VI: 72, not translated

Śaka date: (Śaka 628 = A.D. 706)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Friday (or the next day), 18 June 706, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 7).

Provenance: Phum Pràsàt is a village in the sruk of Santhưk, Kompong Thom province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: sketch map on page 369 and map facing page 379, shows it on the right bank of the Stưng Chinit about 26 kilometers due southeast of Kompong Thom. The prāsāda from which the village takes its name is an ancient brick tower some 10 meters high. This fragment, from the south piédroit of the old sanctuary, comprises 5 lines of which the first 3½ are in Khmer, the remaining 1½ in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This scrap records gifts to Śrī Śaṃkaranārāyaṇa made by a lord Medhavī.


Catalog Number: K.149

Name: Piédroit of Sambór Prei Kŭk

Sources: C IV: 28; CJ ms.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Sambór Prei Kŭk, the ancient Īśānapura, is a group of pre-Angkorian ruins located in the sruk of Sambór, Kompong Thom province, and lies about 35 kilometers due northeast of the provincial capital. This inscription of 30 lines in Khmer is from the south piédroit of tower N18.

Synopsis: Following an opening of grammatical interest, this inscription records the gift by an unnamed ācārya of a large contingent of slaves to a Śrī Ratneśvara (244 adults, 18 children) and a small contingent (about 30 adults and 3 children) and cattle to a place called Knar Vauhv. The text is a valuable source of onomastic data.


Catalog Number: K.152

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Robaṅ Romãs

Sources: C V: 191-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe-xe siècles = A.D. 878-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Robaṅ Romãs see II, № 2, note 2. This inscription, from the north piédroit of the gopura of monument b, may be a continuation of an inscription on the south piédroit (K.150) which is almost entirely obliterated; its upper part is completely ruined. The 27 lines still legible comprises 21½ lines in Khmer followed by 5½ lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: The mediocrity of this inscription is owing in part to its being probably the continuation of the ruined south piédroit, in part to the loss of an indeterminate number of lines at its beginning. What remains is enough to show that it concerns at least an endowment to an aspect of Śiva and the founding of an āśrama by a Śrī Mahīdharendrapaṇḍita as recipient of a royal benefice.


Catalog Number: K.153

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Robaṅ Romãs

Sources: C V: 194-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 923 = A.D. 1001)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Robaṅ Romãs lies on the north side of Saṃbór Prei Kŭk, some distance northeast of Kompong Thom. This inscription of 29 lines is on the north piédroit of the east gopura leading into the sanctuary. C V: 195: ‘L’écriture de ce document, qui est très soignée, présente la particularité d’employer au début la lettre b, rarement utilisée, dans des mots où l’on attend le v, seul correct (çiva, deva, varman, etc.)’.

Synopsis: This inscription announces a śivaliṅga set up by a Śrī Someśvarapaṇḍita and describes lands and slaves which he offers up to it: two tracts of land with a park or garden, a ricefield, 52 slaves, allowances for the divinity, and provision for sanctuary personnel. The text, well organized and generally clear, ends with a varaśāpa of which the last three lines are ruined.


Catalog Number: K.154

Name: Stele of Phum Kŏmrîeṅ

Sources: C II: 123; AIC I: 158, IV: 39-40.

Śaka date: (Śaka 656 = A.D. 734)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is the early morning hours of Monday, 31 May, A.D. 734, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 6). It may be mentioned that the dating of this text hinges on how one interprets the bhūta of ṣadbhūta° in line 1: this constituent may have its past participial sense of ‘added to’ (equivalent to uttara) or its nominal sense of ‘the elements’, a poetic equivalent of pañca ‘five’. In a pre-1937 edition of his inventory Cœdès had given the year as Śaka 656, but by 1942 he had changed his mind: C II: 123 gives the date as ‘606 çaka révolu (685 A.D.)’, repeated in the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 101). A further complication would appear to be the opening yate identified with Śaka 656, indicating that the inscription dates from Śaka 657.

Provenance: Phum Kŏmrîen is a village in Kandàl province which I fail to find on modern maps. The stele found at the site, measuring 0.90 x o.43 x o.10 meter, bears an inscription of 32 lines: 18 on face A, 14 on face B.

Synopsis: This inscription reports the celebration by a lord Devasvāmi of two dīrghasattra entailing endowments to Śiva as Śrī Kedāreśvara (‘lord of Kedāra’). The first endowment (face A) comprises chattels (milled rice, cloth, saṃlo, slaves, cows, riceland, and paddy); this much is consigned to the stewardship of a poñ Saṃkarṣaṇa. A delegation or committee of lords and retainers is appointed to witness the endowment. Another group is named as apparently contesting the endowment. This much concludes with a botched imprecation against anyone desecrating the unnamed sanctuary receiving the gifts. The second endowment (face B) comprises much the same gifts; these are consigned to the stewardship of a poñ Śruta and placed under the executive control of certain others. Another delegation is named as witnessing the endowment. The text closes with a promise of the damnation of persons desecrating the endowment, identical with the first. The text is well organized and clear, though not without a few problems of interpretation, and is an excellent specimen of the epigraphic language of the period and a source of valuable linguistic data.


Catalog Number: K.155

Name: Inscription of Kôk Rakà

Sources: C V: 64-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-vii siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 100) assigns this text to Kôk Rakà in Kompong Thom province; Cœdès (C V: 64) entitles it ‘Inscription de Kôk Rakà (?)’ and his introduction describes the confusion regarding it origin. Judged by the estampages he used, it could have been engraved on two piédroits or on two sides of a stele. The text is entirely in Khmer and comprises 53 lines, 21 on the first side, 32 on the second.

Synopsis: This 53-line inscription registers gifts made to Śrī Śitikaṇṭeśvara by a dhānyākarapati. The first side of the stone lists slaves of various categories apparently meant to serve in the immediate vicinity of the sanctuary. The second side records slaves, cattle, plantations and riceland in two adjacent sruk for the divinity’s support. The text offers a number of new lexical items but not much of grammatical interest. Parts of it are too challenging to admit convincing interpretations.


Catalog Number: K.157

Name: Stele of Vằt Kdĕi Čàr

Sources: C VI: 123-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 875 = A.D. 953)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Kdĕi Čàr, lying 10 kilometers north-northeast of Kompong Thom in the province of the same name (Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 376), is the name of a modern temple built on the site of ancient ruins. Among the latter was found a small stele bearing on its front (face A) a Sanskrit inscription of 14 lines, on its back (face B) a Sanskrit inscription of 16 lines. On the narrow sides of the stone are (face c) a Khmer text of 20 lines and (face d) a Khmer text of 23 lines. All around the base of the stele is an additional line continuing the Sanskrit text of face B and the Khmer text on face d. The two Khmer texts consist almost entirely of a slavelist.

Synopsis: This inscription, of onomastic interest only, consists of a short slavelist and a final sentence in which they are offered up to an unnamed divinity.


Catalog Number: K.158

Name: Stele of Tûol Pràsàt

Sources: C II: 97-114; AIC, II: 656-82.

Śaka date: (Śaka 925 = A.D. 1003)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Pràsàt is located in the sruk of Sangkum Thmey, Preah Vihear province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 376, shows it roughly 100 kilometers east by north of Siem Reap, 50 kilometers due east of Beng Mealea, and the same distance southwest of Mlu Prei. This inscription fills the four faces of a sandstone stele measuring 0.53 x o.63 x o.13 meter. Face A opens with 5 lines in Khmer followed by 28 lines in Sanskrit. Face B begins with 13 lines in Sanskrit, followed by 31 lines in Khmer, continued by 32 lines on face C and 35 lines on face D, for a total of 98 lines.

Synopsis: This inscription merits close study, its length providing a rich variety of grammatical details. Face A records a royal directive from Jayavīravarman putting an end to litigation over certain lands owned by a vāp Sahadeva. The three other faces quote a petition submitted by vāp Sahadeva for revalidation of his title to lands accumulated by his ancestors. The text is well written and, apart from three short passages, of more than ordinary clarity.


Catalog Number: K.159

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Bĕṅ

Sources: C VI: 40.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Bĕṅ is located in Kŏṃpoṅ Thoṃ province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I, map facing page 376, shows it 6 or 7 kilometers due north of Phnoṃ Dèk, while descriptions of the monument and the inscription are given on pages 377-8.

Synopsis: The condition of this 9-line fragment is such that no coherent meaning can be drawn from it, though it clearly mentions the gift of slaves and ricefields probably to the divinity mentioned in line 2.


Catalog Number: K.162S

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Ampĭl Rolựm

Sources: C VI: 101-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 9th century = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: The latest date, mentioned in line 11 of the south piédroit (stanza XVI), is Śaka 83x, corresponding to A.D. 908-17.

Provenance: Pràsàt Ampĭl Rolựm (the vowel of °lựm is properly a barbed ù) is located in south-central Kompong Thom province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 424, shows it about 48 kilometers due southeast of Chikreng and 74 kilometers due southeast of Kompong Cham. K.162 is from the two piédroits of the portal of the central tower. It begins, exceptionally on the north piédroit, which consists of 22 lines in Sanskrit; these are followed on the south piédroit by 28 additional lines in Sanskrit and these final 2 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.163

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Ampĭl Rolưm

Sources: C VI: 100; VS, 149-56.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Ampĭl Rolưm is a group of three ancient sanctuaries located in Kompong Thom province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 424, shows it in the sruk of Kompong Svay, about 17 kilometers due northwest of the provincial capital. Aymonier, op.cit., 442, states that this inscription ‘occupe une partie d’une face d’une grande et belle stèle plate de grès’, but Cœdès (C VI: 100) specifies that it is on a piédroit in the north tower. The text on one piédroit consists of 9 lines in Khmer, that on the other consists of 17 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: The first of these two inscriptions records the gift to the Buddhist Trinity of 30 slaves and 13 children by a poñ Prajñācandra. The second reports, among other things, the gift to the Trinity of additional slaves by a poñ Vidyā□n. Neither text offers much of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.164

Name: Stele of Tûol Pĕi

Sources: C VI: 96-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 844 = A.D. 922)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Pĕi (dwl bai) is located in the khum of Stung, Kompong Thom province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 424, shows it at about 8 kilometers due south of the khum seat and some 10 kilometers due east of Kompong Chen. This inscription, all in Khmer, consists of 12 lines on face A, 22 lines on face B, and 4 lines on the smaller face C. Cœdès (C VI: 96) states that the upper part of face A bears traces of an earlier text which was perhaps intentionally obliterated.

Synopsis: This inscription records an order from Harṣavarman to integrate a foundation made by a vāp Ci with property assigned to an unnamed divinity and to provide service personnel and allowances for other divinities, likewise unnamed. Gifts of four ricefields are mentioned, as well as slaves and articles of value. As with № 3 and № 9, the text, particularly in its opening passage, exemplifies the increasing convolution of sentences. This is a stylistic trend, for the grammatical apparatus remains unchanged from pre-Angkorian times: the authors of these early Angkorian texts now begin to overload expositions which would have been better expressed in a simpler style. For this and other reasons, the text is an excellent source of the grammatical practices of the period.


Catalog Number: K.165N

Name: Piédroit of Thvãr Kdĕi

Sources: C VI: 132-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 874 = A.D. 952)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Thvãr Kdĕi (dhvār ktī), a name both Aymonier (Le Cambodge, I: 444) and Cœdès (C VI: 132) took as a deformation of dvāravatī, is located in Kompong Thom province, and is the site of three small brick towers, now in ruins, oriented on the west. Aymonier, op.cit., map facing page 424, shows it lying about 5 kilometers due southwest of Kompong Chen, 20 kilometers due east-southeast of the ‘Tonlé Chhmar’, and the same distance north-northwest of the ‘Sting Sên’. The piédroits of the central tower bear two separate inscriptions. That on the south comprises 21 lines: 14 in Sanskrit, 6 in Khmer, and 1 line in Sanskrit. The one on the north, reproduced here, consists of 39 lines in Khmer. From the middle of this text the left part is no longer legible.

Synopsis: This 39-line inscription records multifarious transactions by a kinsman of the royal namily named the vāp Pañ to establish a new Śrī Cāmpeśvara in the sruk of Dvāravatī. Despite lacunæ and a number of lexical difficulties, the text is another excellent specimen of Angkorian Khmer, full of instructive grammatical details including several structural ambiguities which will exercise the reader’s ability to recognize others to come.


Catalog Number: K.165S

Name: Piédroit of Thvãr Kdĕi

Sources: C VI: 132-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 879 = A.D. 957)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Thvãr Kdĕi see № 37, note 2. This six-line text on the south piédroit appears to have been finished but its lacunæ preclude full understanding of its content.

Synopsis: This 6-line inscription appears to be complete but several lacunæ prevent its being understood in all details. The opening passage is well structured and for the most part clear, and offers some useful lexical matter.


Catalog Number: K.168

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Čikrèṅ

Sources: C VI: 168-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 894 = A.D. 972)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Čikrèṅ is an ancient sanctuary located in Siem Reap province in the seat of the sruk of Čikrèṅ (jī kreṅ), some 57 kilometers due southeast of Siem Reap town, 55 kilometers south-southeast of Phnom Kulen. It is shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 424. This inscription of 16 lines is from the south piédroit of the east portal.

Synopsis: This 16-line inscription registers gifts to Ekādaśamukha, Lokeśvara and Bhagavatī by three donors whose names are obliterated. The gifts include slaves, cattle, ricefields, paddy, and fruit.


Catalog Number: K.171

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Pràp Tưs

Sources: C VI: 165-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 891 = A.D. 969)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Pràp Tưs (tưs has a breve over it in the French romanization) is the modern name of a small sanctuary in Siem Reap province, lying some 59 kilometers southeast of the town of that name and 1 kilometer northwest of Spãn Pràp Tưs on the river Chikreng. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 424, shows the latter 5 kilometers northeast of the community of ‘Chikrêng’ and 13 kilometers northwest of ‘Popoul’. According to Aymonier, op.cit., 449, the ruins of the sanctuary lie 500 or 600 meters from the modern temple known as ‘Vat Prap Tĕus’ or ‘Vat Trach’. In his time the ruins themselves were known variously as Kamphêṅ Sdằč Kŏṃlôṅ (Cœdès’s transcription) ‘enceinte du roi lépreux’, as ‘Kuk Trach’ (‘galeries de l’arbre Trach’), or as ‘Prasat Top’. This inscription of nine lines was found in the gopura on the south piédroit of the entry into the west vestibule.

Synopsis: An inscription of 9 lines recording a royal directive identifying slaves, small articles, and ricelands offered up to an unnamed divinity. Owing to a lacuna, the relevance of a probably important passage (lines 3-4) cannot be ascertained.


Catalog Number: K.174

Name: Inscription of Pơṅ Práḥ Pŭt Lơ

Sources: M. Rœské, “Les inscriptions bouddhiques du mont Koulen,” in JA, Onzième série, III (1914): 644.

Śaka date: (Śaka 869 = A.D. 947)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pơṅ Práḥ Pŭt Lơ (bĕṅ braḥ buddh lœ) is one of five caves on Phnoṃ Kulên (gūlēnLitchi chinensis’), lying 45 kilometers due northeast of Siem Reap; see Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 400. Its precise location on the plateau is unknown to me.

Synopsis: The reading of this 5-line inscription is unreliable enough to make it unfit for analysis.


Catalog Number: K.175

Name: Stele of Kôk Rosĕi

Sources: C VI: 173-80. K.175W: 16-8 and S: 1-22, dated Śaka 90□ (A.D. 978/87), is nearly identical with I, № 75.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: I follow the date given in the “Liste générale …”(C VIII: 105); M. Claude Jacques assigns it to Śaka 10th century. The date Śaka 90□ in line W: 16 may narrow this down to A.D. 978/987.

Provenance: For the location of Kôk Rosĕi see I, № 75, note 2. The present inscription, entirely in Khmer, was engraved on a small stele of red sandstone measuring 0.60 meters high by 0.53 meters wide along its east and west faces, 0.31 meters wide along its south and north faces. The condition of the upper parts of all four faces precludes legibility, while the west face has suffered deliberate mutilation. Cœdès (C VI: 173-4) discusses the difficulty under these circumstances of determining on which face the text begins. The attentive reader will note discrepancies in my rendering of the text on the west and south faces with that in the composite text given as I, № 75. These discrepancies should be instructive in their own way.

Synopsis: The east face of this damaged inscription records the delimitation of a tract of forest land and its award as a royal benefice to a steñ Śivācārya, who establishes a village on it, settles his family on it, and dedicates it to Śrī Bhadreśvara, making allowances to that divinity as well as to the Sovereign High Lord of the World and to the High Lord of the World at Liṅgapura. The east face records other pious works by Śivācārya and the naming of the new sruk and sanctuary. The north face records pious works in various parts by the ancestors and maternal uncles of Śivācārya. Despite its poor condition, the text is a good source of grammatical detail and is well worth close study.


Catalog Number: K.177

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Práḥ Thãt Khvàv

Sources: C VII: 37-9; Saveros Pou, “Inscriptions khmeres K. 144 et K. 177,” in BEFEO, LXX (1981) : 112-20.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiii-xiv siècles = A.D. 1278-1477)

Conventional date: This is the date given in the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 105), though Cœdès (C VII 37) allows that ‘… on ne se trompera pas beaucoup en attribuant ce document au xve siècle’. To this Pou (112) assents: ‘… d’accord avec G.C., je le ferais remonter au xve siècle’.

Provenance: Pràsàt Práḥ Thãt Khvàv is located in the sruk of Chi Kreng, Kompong Thom province, roughly 30 kilometers southeast of the east end of Phnoṃ Kulên. It is shown by Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 424, and described on pages 415-7. This inscription is from the north piédroit of the tower, and bears 57 lines in Khmer followed by 9 lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This inscription of 66 short lines commemorates the career of a ranking cleric who may have come from Ceylon.1 By my reckoning it falls just short of the borderline between Old and Middle Khmer. Cœdès (C VII: 37, note liminaire) remarks that ‘… la langue est intermédiaire entre celle des inscriptions d’époque angkorienne et celle des inscriptions d’époque médiévale, …’, adding that it is ‘farcie de mots pāli’; while Pou (113) correctly observes that ‘le sanskrit, par rapport au Pāli, y occupe encore une place plus important que G.C. ne l’a estimée’. Pāli forms in fact are confined to proper names, while the numerous substandard forms one might ascribe to Pāli are evidently from another Prākṛta. For whatever use it may be to the reader, I mark these in footnotes. Aside from this matter, the text is well written, for the most part clear, and a good source of grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.178

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Phnoṃ Mréč

Sources: C VI: 192-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka 916 = A.D. 994)

Conventional date: The date is given in the Sanskrit verses.

Provenance: The ‘Liste générale … ‘ (C VIII: 104) locates Pràsàt Phnoṃ Mréč in Kompong Thom province, but recent maps place it in sruk Sangkum Thmey of Preah Vihear province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 424, shows it 5 kilometers northwest of the village of ‘Prââp’ and 23 kilometers due south-southeast of Koh Ker. The sanctuary comprises two brick towers. This inscription of 16 lines is from the north piédroit of the south tower, and comprises 2 lines in Sanskrit followed by 14 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: The Sanskrit text of this inscription (lines 1-2) records the gift to Śiva by a certain Soma of an āśrama and lands in Gaṃryāṅ. The Khmer text defines tracts at Gaṃryāṅ, Lāc Patau, and Travāṅ Thmās, mentions the barter-price of a ricefield kaṃluṅ vnaṃ (‘in the hills’), and gives the metes and bounds of a royal grant. It closes with provisions for those who will manage these lands and for their exemption from other service. The text is well-written and clear from start to finish but of only moderate grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.181

Name: Stele of Nẵk Tà Čàrĕk

Sources: C VI: 140-2.

Śaka date: (Śaka 884 = A.D. 962)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Nẵk Tà Čàrĕk, according to Aymonier’s description (Le Cambodge, I: 384), is the name of a small man-made hillock a short distance north of ‘Phum Réach Sdach’, the site of an ancient temple now in Siem Reap province. His map (op.cit., facing page 376) shows it 10 kilometers south of ‘Phnom Thbèng’, 20 kilometers east-southeast of Koh Ker, 53 kilometers west-southwest of Mle Prei. The red sandstone stele found at the site is described by Cœdès (C VI: 140) as measuring 1.2 x .30 x .20 meters with an inscription on three of its sides: 19 lines of face A, 17 lines on face B, and 9 lines on face C. Aymonier’s nearly complete translation is given at op.cit., 384-5.

Synopsis: This excellent inscription reports the trial of a governor of the viṣaya of Vīrapura, charged with misappropriating a ricefield. The particulars of the case are summarized, punishments are meted out, and the field is reassigned. The text is a particularly good specimen of the language of the period and is full of striking examples of the grammar.


Catalog Number: K.188

Name: Inscription of Kòḥ Ker

Sources: C I: 50; NIC II/III: 94-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 851 = A.D. 929)

Conventional date: The opening date is read 851 in C I: 50 and so given in C VIII: 107; NIC II/III: 94 reads it 841.

Provenance: This 15-line inscription is on the south face of the west peristyle of the east gopura II of Kòḥ Ker (№ 19, note 2). Cœdès reproduces only the first 5 lines, Pou the entire text.

Synopsis: This 15-line inscription, of scant grammatical interest, records gifts of small articles and 33 slaves made to the Sovereign High Lord of the World.


Catalog Number: K.190

Name: Stele of Yaśovarman

Sources: C VI: 89-90; AIC, I: 305-14.

Śaka date: (Śaka 817 = A.D. 895)

Conventional date: The date is given in stanzas 24-26 of face A.

Provenance: Phnoṃ Sandak, the ancient Śivapura Danden, is the westernmost of two hills in Preah Vihear province lying 22 kilometers due south of the Thai frontier, the same distance due west of Choam Ksan (jāṃ ksānt), roughly the same distance due southeast of Preah Vihear (braḥ vihār) on the Thai frontier, and about 98 kilometers due north-northeast of Siem Reap. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: maps facing pages 376 and 424. This is one of five inscriptions on stelæ found on Phnoṃ Sandak. Its original location within the sanctuary is unknown. The inscription consists of 39 lines in Sanskrit on faces A and B, and 32 lines in Khmer covering one of the narrower faces and part of the corresponding base. ‘Il n’a pas semblé utile,’ says Cœdès (C VI: 89), ‘de traduire ce texte qui est presque entièrement composé de noms propres de lieux et d’accidents de terrain’.

Synopsis: The Sanskrit text of this inscription records the setting up of an image of Śrī Bhadreśvara by a disciple of Somaśiva, while the Khmer text reports the gift of riceland to two aspects of Śiva and furnishes its metes and bound in some detail. From both the grammatical and the lexical points of view it ranks among the more interesting of the short inscriptions. In lines 27-31 we have an unusual reference to those who shall work the land, while the remainder consists of a rather uncommon form of varaśāpa.


Catalog Number: K.192

Name: Stele of Rājendravarman

Sources: C VI: 128-30.

Śaka date: (Śaka 878 = A.D. 956)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This inscription is from Phnoṃ Sandak, the site of ancient Śivapura Danden and the westernmost of two hills in Preah Vihear province. It lies 22 kilometers due south of the Thai frontier, the same distance due west of Choam Ksan (jāṃ ksānt), roughly the same distance due southeast of Preah Vihear (braḥ vihār) on the frontier, and about 98 kilometers due north-northeast of Siam Reap. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: maps facing pages 376 and 424. On the purpose of the inscription see Cœdès’s comment at C VI: 128.

Synopsis: The organization of this inscription is not as clear-cut as one might wish. Its opening passage reports a royal order for two ecclesiastics to make an inventory of chattels possessed by a steṅ ˀañ ācārya bhagavan and two members of the royal family. Without explanation or easy transition, the following passages record the names of over 76 slaves (identified as ‘slaves of the sacred fire’) and 6 ricefields for the support of an unnamed sanctuary. No mention is made of cattle, elephants, horses, sruk, and small articles stipulated in line 5. Despite a few ambiguities, the text is carefully composed and rich in grammatical matter well worth the student’s attention. Some of the slavenames cited are innovative and likewise noteworthy.


Catalog Number: K.194 and K.383

Name: The Stelæ of Phnoṃ Sandak and Práḥ Vihãr

Sources: BEFEO, XLIII (1943-1946): 134-54.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1041 = A.D. 1119 and Śaka 1043 = A.D. 1121)

Conventional date: C&D, 136: ‘Le texte khmèr commence par une date dont le chiffre des unités est peu distinct. Il semble que ce soit un 1, et que la date doive être lue 1041 çaka. Dans ce cas, l’inscription daterait de la même année que les travaux mentionnés dans son dernier paragraph (B. 20-22). Comme elle ne peut être ni antérieure à cette date, ni postérieure à 1043 ç., date du second post-scriptum de la stèle de Práḥ Vihãr, la marge d’erreur n’est que de deux ans’.

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Sandak see I, № 42, note 2, for Práḥ Vihãr, II, № 55, note 2. What follows is a reduction of G. Cœdès et P. Dupont, “Les stèles de Phnoṃ Sandak et de Práḥ Vihãr,” hereafter identified as C&D. As is explained in their introduction, the texts of these two stelæ are nearly identical but show differences of detail and of condition. The authors have been at pains to reconstitute a common text (pages 141-50), after which they present the Texte spécial à la stèle de Phnoṃ Sandak (pages 150-1) and the Texte spécial à la stèle de Práḥ Vihãr (pages 151-4). The result, an editorial tour de force, does not favor grammatical analysis or lexical exploitation. I have therefore eliminated all of their apparatus except the line numbers of the stele of Phnoṃ Sandak. The reader interested in the details of the original text should consult the article on which my transcription is based. Note that K.194 is continued in № 11 while K.383 is continued in № 12.

Synopsis: This is another outstanding inscription of the period which should excite the interest of the grammarian. It records the favor enjoyed by a royal spiritual preceptor (vraḥ guru), a Śrī Divākarapaṇḍita.1 during the reign of four sovereigns (Udayādityavarman II, Harṣavarman III, Jayavarman VI, Sūryavarman II). A minimum span of fifty-five years (A.D. 1066 to 1121) suggests that the inscription was made toward the end of the guru’s life. With few lacunæ, the text is well structured and clear, and offers at least two passages of amusing complexity which will try the reader’s patience.


Catalog Number: K.195/1°

Name: Piédroit of Phnoṃ Sandak

Sources: C VI: 247-50.

Śaka date: (Śaka 963 = A.D. 1041)

Conventional date: The date is taken from line and from the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 107).

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Sandak see I, № 42, note 2. This 6-line inscription is from the north piédroit of the east portal of the gopura.

Synopsis: This curious inscription records an order by Sūryavarman I concerning the succession to the guru-ship of a kuṭi at Śivāspada, vacated by a steṅ Somapāli. Short as it is, it is of considerable grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.195/5°

Name: Piédroit of Phnoṃ Sandak

Sources: C VI: 247-50.

Śaka date: (Śaka 971 = A.D. 1049)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Sandak see K.194 and K.383 (A.D. 1121), note 2. This 4-line inscription is the last of five engraved on the north piédroit of the east portal of the gopura.

Synopsis: A four-line inscription recording the gift of slaves and small articles to an āśrama by an ascetic attached to a Śivasthāna. The text is of only moderate interest.


Catalog Number: K.196

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Daṃbók Khpŏs

Sources: C VI: 224.

Śaka date: (Śaka 927 = A.D. 1005)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Daṃbóṅ Khpŏs is a lone tower in the sruk of Svay Leu, Siem Riep province. Cœdès (C VI: 224) places it ‘à quelque 8 kilomètres au nord-est du Kulên’. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 424, shows it on the right (west) bank of the prek Chikreng, 22 kilometers due northeast of Beng Mealea and 14 kilometers due east of the foot of Phnom Kulên. This ruined inscription is from the south piédroit of the tower’s portal. The reader may wish to consult Aymonier’s translation at op. cit., 420.

Synopsis: This inscription, originally of 8 lines of which only 4 are now legible, opens with a strongly worded admonition then passes on to a royal directive from Jayavīravarman, the purport of which is lost.


Catalog Number: K.198

Name: Stele of Dón Tri

Sources: C VI: 147-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 888 = A.D. 966)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The large village of Phum Dón Tri (ṭūn drī) is located in southeastern Batdambang province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 304, shows ‘Daûn Tri’ lying 46 kilometers southeast of Batdambang and 13 kilometers north-northeast of Mong Russey (his ‘Ta Moung’). In the precincts of a modern temple on the site of a ruined brick tower oriented on the north this stele was found, bearing an inscription on three of its sides: face A, 6 lines in Sanskrit followed by 11 lines in Khmer; face B, 20 lines in Khmer; face C, 19 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription of 50 short lines shows a text lacking the polish and care of composition that we have come to expect. It reports gifts of some 82 slaves, small articles, and cattle to Śrī Āryamaitreya. Its grammatical interest is slight.


Catalog Number: K.200

Name: Fragments of Vằt Slà Kèt

Sources: C VI: 312-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1067 = A.D. 1145)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Slà Kèt is located in Batdambang province about 3 kilometers north of the provincial seat. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 304, shows it as ‘Vat Slaket’ on the left bank of the Sangkê. These two fragments are from a stele found at the site by Aymonier and were said to have been brought from the vicinity of nearby Bãsĕt. Fragment I bears parts of an inscription, 13 lines on face A, 15 lines on face B. Fragment II bears a text of 8 lines on its inscribed face.

Synopsis: The first fragment records in detail an annual endowment made to Śrī Bhadreśvara by a cleric of Malyaṅ whose name is obliterated. The second fragment is a list of slaves. A feature of both fragments, not understood, is the frequency of kinship terms accompanying the slavenames.


Catalog Number: K.202

Name: Piédroit of Bànan

Sources: C VII: 40-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date: The “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 109) gives the date as Śaka xe (?). Cœdès (C VII: 40) states that the inscription is probably to be assigned to the reign of Rājendravarman (A.D. 944-968).

Provenance: Bànan is a village located in the sruk of the same name in Batdambang province, about 18 kilometers due south of the provincial seat. It is shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 304 (‘Banone’); the inscription given here is described briefly at loc. cit., 289-90, where the name is transcribed ‘Banân’.

Synopsis: A ruined inscription of 35 lines from which little can be drawn.


Catalog Number: K.204

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Snèṅ

Sources: C VII: 42, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Snèṅ see II, № 64, note 2. The stone is described by Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: 291.

Synopsis: A ruined 22-line inscription showing patches of meaning among the prevailing lacunæ.


Catalog Number: K.205

Name: Inscription of Vằt Bàsĕt

Sources: C III: 3-11; AIC, II: 688-99.

Śaka date: (Śaka 958 = A.D. 1036)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Bàsĕt is the site of a sanctuary 14 kilometers east-northeast of Batdambang. This 25-line inscription is from the west piédroit of the south portal.

Synopsis: This challenging inscription records a grant of riceland to a vraḥ kaṃmrateṅ ˀ Śrī Guṇapativarman by a kaṃsteṅ of sruk Vraḥ Vryaṅ and four associates. Seven fields at Vāk Toṅ Tiṅ are duly recorded and reported to the sovereign, who approves the grant. They are then dedicated to the divinity at Śrī Jayakṣetra and given to the three daughters of Śrī Guṇapativarman.


Catalog Number: K.206

Name: Inscription of Vằt Bàsĕt

Sources: C III: 11-6; AIC, II: 700-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 964 = A.D. 1042)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Bàsĕt see № 55, note 2. This inscription is from the left pillar of the sanctuary’s south portal.

Synopsis: This inscription records tracts of land at six localities bought by a Śrī Guṇapativarman and dedicated to the High Lord of the World at Śrī Jayakṣetra, the price paid for them, their detailed delimitation, a list of some 40 witnesses to the purchase, and the pair who composed the inscription’s text. An annex (from line 38) records goods contributed to the purchase price and remuneration to members of the court who participated in setting up the boundary-markers. The last passage records the gift of another tract to Śrī Guṇapativarman. Despite vexing lacunæ, the text is generally clear and is an excellent source of grammatical data.


Catalog Number: K.207

Name: Inscription of Văt Bàsĕt

Sources: C III: 16-24; AIC, II: 708-18.

Śaka date: (Śaka 964 = A.D. 1042)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Bàsĕt see № 55, note 2. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the sanctuary’s west portal.

Synopsis: An inscription of superior quality and more than ordinary interest, well-written, clear, even vivid in parts. It records pious works by a Śrī Kaṇṭhapaṇḍita of sruk Phalapriya in establishing a residence for the High Lord of the World of Śrī Jayakṣetra. Two tracts of land in sruk Thkval (lines 15-23) are purchased from fourteen members of a local family; the sellers take an oath (lines 29-35) to maintain the divinity on the land; forty-five witnesses to the purchase are listed (lines 36-60); and a commission of ecclesiastics circumambulate the land and set up boundary-markers (lines 60-64).


Catalog Number: K.208

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Bàsĕt

Sources: C VI: 287-92. K.208 supersedes K.587 (C III: 122-5), now vacant but given in AIC, III: 1435-40.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Bàsĕt see II, № 56, note 2. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the east portal of the nave, and consists of 30 lines in Sanskrit followed by 38 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: A difficult inscription, the more so because of its numerous lacunæ, but one offering valuable lessons in the grammar. The damaged first 13 lines concern the acquisition of a piece of land with its metes and bounds as well as the price paid for it, but the identity of its new owner is obliterated. The remainder is chiefly concerned with a piece of land lying south of the first belonging to a teṅ hyaṅ Vasanta and a loñ Ney, whose line has become extinct, and with the grant of this tract as a royal benefice to My Holy High Lord of Gaˀāṅ Laṃpoḥ.


Catalog Number: K.211

Name: Inscription of Vằt Èk

Sources: C III: 26-8; AIC, II: 719-22.

Śaka date: (Śaka 959 = A.D. 1037)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Èk is the site of the ancient sanctuary of Narendragrāma in Batdambang province, 8 kilometers north of the provincial seat. This inscription is from the north piédroit of the east portal of the east tower, and consists of 9 lines in Khmer followed by 2 lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This inscription records the setting up of a śivaliṅga known as the Sūryavarmeśvara in the sanctuary of Narendragrāma by a Śrī Yogīśvarapaṇḍita and his allowances made to the image as well as to sruk Jāgrāma, the residents of whom are accorded special exemptions. By order of Sūryavarman I the land is delimited and given over to Śrī Yogīśvarapaṇḍita.


Catalog Number: K.212A/1°

Name: Stele of Tà Ṅên

Sources: C III: 29-33; AIC, III: 1203-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 949 = A.D. 1027)

Conventional date: The date, so given in the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 111), is taken from K.212A/2°: 22.

Provenance: Tà Ṅên (Ta Ngaen) is a village in Batdambang province about 23 kilometers due west of the provincial seat. As published, the first face of this inscription is in reality the second (B), which opens with some 12 lines which have been defaced; these are followed by a list of male and female slaves, continued on the left side of the second face (A) for a total of 110 names. Reproduced here are the 16 lines in Khmer which begin the second face, presumably meant to follow the ruined text of the first face. This is followed first by 2 Sanskrit śloka (lines 18-21), then by the 11½ lines constituting K.212A/2° (№ 53). Along the left side of the present text is a column of slavenames which I give at the end.

Synopsis: This short inscription records lands acquired by an unnamed party, validated as a royal benefice, dedicated to an unidentified śivaliṅga and to the High Lord of the World at Śrī Jayakṣetra, and returned to Sūryavarman I as a rājadharma.


Catalog Number: K.212A/2°

Name: Stele of Tà Ṅên

Sources: C III: 29-33; AIC, III: 1203-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 949 = A.D. 1027)

Conventional date:

Provenance: On Tà Ṅên and its stele see № 52, note 2.

Synopsis: This inscription records a royal order addressed to a vraḥ kaṃsteṅ Śrī Gaurīśvarapaṇḍita regarding the administration of four āśrama held in the name of Sūryavarman I and their dedication to the High Lord of the World at Śrī Jayakṣetra.


Catalog Number: K.214B

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Bantãy Nãṅ

Sources: C II: 202-6; AIC, II: 723-30.

Śaka date: (Śaka 903 = A.D. 982)

Conventional date: As calculated by Auguste Barth the date of the Khmer text corresponds to 26 November 982 (C II: 203).

Provenance: Phnoṃ Bantãy Nãṅ is a small hill some 3 kilometers southeast of Mongolborei in Banteay Mean Chey province, and is shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 304. This inscription of 41 lines consists of 21 lines in Sanskrit on face A (including one line along the base) and, on face B, five more lines in Sanskrit followed by 15 lines in Khmer. Cœdès remarks (C II: 202 and note 7) that the engraving is clear and well preserved but that the lapicide rarely distinguishes long ī from short i.

Synopsis: A simple little inscription recording the installation of the image of an aspect of Prajñāpāramitā known as Trailokyavijayāgīśvarī by an ācārya Tribhuvanavajra and members of his family. Also mentioned is the formal assignment of an image of Trailokyanātha (Lokeśvara) to the ācārya’s sister. A total of 18 slaves are given to the two divinities, together with small articles and three ricefields.


Catalog Number: K.215

Name: Inscription of Phnoṃ Práḥ Nét Práḥ

Sources: C III: 34-7; AIC, III: 1209-12.

Śaka date: (Śaka 871 = A.D. 949)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Práḥ Nét Práḥ is a hill in Banteay Mean Chey province lying between Moṅkolbórei and Kralằñ and shown in Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 304, about 32 kilometers due west of Sisophon. A ruined brick tower on the hill yields several inscriptions of which this is one. For Aymonier’s summary of its content see op.cit., 322.

Synopsis: Unlike the preceding inscription, the language of this little one is flawed by more than one structural obscurity. For this reason it offers good exercise to the student of grammar and is well worth close study. The text concerns a Śaivite āśrama founded in A.D. 938 which on the death of its founder eleven years later fell into disuse but was maintained by a teṅ Hyaṅ and three associates until their line became extinct. To assure the celebration of rites to their dead, they band together to restore the āśrama, locate a High Lord of the World on its premises, and make a modest endowment to it.


Catalog Number: K.216N/1°

Name: Inscription of Phnoṃ Práḥ Nét Práḥ

Sources: C III: 37-9; AIC, III: 1213-23,

Śaka date: (Śaka 927 = A.D. 1005)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Práḥ Nét Práḥ, the ancient sanctuary of Śivapāda, is shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 304; it is located in Banteay Meanchey province about 17 kilometers northeast of Mongkolborei and about 26 kilometers due east of Kralanh (in Siem Reap province). On it is situated a monument with this 13-line inscription engraved on the north piédroit of the nave.

Synopsis: This short inscription records a royal order for three members of the royal court to make an inventory of the estate of a steṅ ˀ of Vraḥ Jrai and to turn that estate over to his family or, in the absence of descendants, to the instructor (adhyāpaka) at cells of the Rājendrāśrama founded by the steṅ ˀ’s ancestors. The text offers good exercise in grammar and in resolution of a few lexical difficulties.


Catalog Number: K.216N/2°

Name: Inscription of Phnoṃ Práḥ Nét Práḥ

Sources: C III: 37-9; AIC, III: 1213-23.

Śaka date: (Śaka 929 = A.D. 1007)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Práḥ Nét Práḥ see № 17, note 2. This inscription is from the north piédroit of the nave.

Synopsis: A mere scrap recording a royal order that the foundations of two ecclesiastics belong to the sanctuary at Giripura. It is not without grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.216S

Name: Inscription of Phnoṃ Práḥ Nét Praḥ

Sources: C III: 40-4; AIC, III: 1213-23.

Śaka date: (Śaka 928 = A.D. 1006)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Práḥ Net Práḥ see № 17, note 2. This 26-line inscription is from the south piédroit of the nave.

Synopsis: This inscription begins abruptly with a 10-line list of mixed male and female slaves whose donor and recipient are unidentified; this is followed by two short lists of slaves given to a teṅ Umā by a chief lord Śrī Saṅgrāmadāruṇa and her father. Śrī Saṅgrāmadāruṇa then makes an endowment to the High Lord of the World at Śivapāda of a daily allowance of rice and seven ricefields, while at the end the Lady Umā and a loñ Pitṛyajña make an additional allowance of rice.


Catalog Number: K.218N

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Saṅkhah

Sources: C III: 45-53; AIC, II: 731-48.

Śaka date: (Śaka 924 = A.D. 1002)

Conventional date: This date is from stanza VIII (lines 15-6) of the Sanskrit text. The Khmer text is undated.

Provenance: Pràsàt Saṅkhaḥ is located 9 kilometers northwest of Kralàñ, seat of the sruk of the same name in Batdambang province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 304, shows it as ‘Prasat Sang Keah’, 50 kilometers due east of Sisophon, 36 kilometers due northeast of Mongkolborei, 7.5 kilometers due west-norhwest of ‘Tĕuk Chou’. This inscription is from the gopura of the east portal, of which the south piédroit consists of 42 lines in Sanskrit, the north piédroit 8 more lines in Sanskrit followed by 50 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This curious inscriptions records the offering by Sūryavarman I to a Śrī Vāgīśvaramaṇḍitasvāmi of the sruk and a large body of slaves for service to the High Lord of the Śivaliṅga at Jaroy Cār. Lines 12 to 59 enumerate 98 males and 91 females. The text of a minor grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.219

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Rolŭḥ

Sources: C VII: 45-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 972 = A.D. 1050)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Rolŭḥ is a ruined tower located in Banteay Meanchey province, in the sruk of Sisophon. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 304, shows it siuated 42 kilometers due east of Sdok Kak Thom, 22 kilometers north-northwest of Mongolborey, 13 kilometers due northeast of Sisophon. This 26-line inscription is from the south piédroit of the sanctuary’s portal.

Synopsis: This earliest dated inscription from the reign of Udayādityavarman II records a royal grant of land and slaves in Stuk Rmāṅ to Śrī Jayendrapaṇḍita, on whose behalf № 76 (K.235, the Sdok Kak Thom inscription) was written. The boundaries of the tract are stated in detail, and the three personages responsible for composing the inscription are named. The text, unflawed, is well-written, clear, and rich in grammatical features.


Catalog Number: K.220

Name: Piédroits of Bantãy Prãv

Sources: C VI: 225-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 924 = A.D. 1002)

Conventional date: C VI: 225, note 5: ‘Peut-être 934’; C VI: 226, note 1: ‘Ou 934. … ‘.

Provenance: Bantãy Prãv lies 7 kilometers due northwest of Svay Cek, which is 21.5 kilometers due north of Sisophon and 25 kilometers due east of the Thai frontier, in Batdambang province. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 304. These two texts are from the north and south piédroits of the north tower.

Synopsis: A ruined inscription recording gifts of rice and slaves to a divinity whose name is obliterated. On the south face the relative pronoun man occurs consistently in the nominative, while the structure of the slavelists illustrate the versatility of relative clauses. The text poses several unresolvable lexical problems.


Catalog Number: K.221N

Name: Inscription of Bantãy Prãv

Sources: C III: 57-61; AIC, II: 749-58.

Śaka date: (Śaka 931 = A.D. 1009)

Conventional date: The latest date in the text is Śaka 931, but Cœdès (C III: 57, line 2) describes it as contemporaneous with K.221S, viz. Śaka 933.

Provenance: For the location of Bantãy Prãv see № 7, note 2. This text is from the north piédroit of the central tower.

Synopsis: This inscription records two groups of slaves: the first (lines 1-20) given by the kaṃsteṅ Śrī Narapatīndravarman to the śivaliṅga of an unnamed sanctuary, the second (lines 20-23) given by a vāp of Vraḥ Jrai to a divinity at Thpvaṅ Rmmāṅ. Lines 23-26 appear to be a continuation of the first group. Among inscriptions encountered so far, the first list is unique in describing the provenance of individual slaves in some detail. The text offers much of grammatical and lexical interest.


Catalog Number: K.221S

Name: Inscription of Bantãy Prãv

Sources: C III: 54-6; AIC, II: 749-58.

Śaka date: (Śaka 933 = A.D. 1011)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Bantãy Prãv see № 7, note 2. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the central tower.

Synopsis: This short inscription records three tracts of land conveyed to the śivaliṅga at Thpvaṅ Rmmāṅ with indication of their delimitation and mention of witnesses. A fourth transaction conveys a ricefield at Thpvaṅ Rmmāṅ to a Śrī Narapatīndravarman. The text is well-written and free of grammatical or other problems.


Catalog Number: K.222

Name: Inscription of Bantãy Prãv

Sources: C III: 61-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Bantãy Prãv see II, № 7, note 2. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the south tower.

Synopsis: This inscription is a list of some 86 slaves assigned by a Śrī Narapatīndravarman to the service of Parameśvara, but interspersed in the list are instructive sentences and clauses which will be of interest to the grammarian.


Catalog Number: K.226

Name: Piédroits of Bantãy Čhmàr

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 97-119, untranslated, hereafter Cœdès; APK I : 343-65. All interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.227

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Čhmàr

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes. XXIV. – Nouvelles données chronologiques et généalogiques sur la dynastie de Mahīdharapura,” in BEFEO, XXIX (1929): 308-30 ; APK I : 181, 363.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Bantãy Čhmàr is located in the far north of Banteay Meanchey province roughly 60 kilometers due north of Sisophon. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 304. The piédroit in question is presumably in the portal leading into the sanctum.

Synopsis: An inscription as delightful as it is out of the ordinary, featuring two historical vignettes accounting for four of the apotheosized ˀnak sañjak in the opening lines. Both narratives are full of excellent grammatical material.


Catalog Number: K.229

Name: Stele of Nẵk Tà Čiḥ Kô

Sources: C VI: 273-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Nẵk Tà Čiḥ Kô is shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 304, on the right bank of the ‘Stung Kampong Krasang’ in sruk Preah Net Preah of Batdambang province. However, loc. cit., 350, note 1, indicates that it may be a short distance away on the ‘Sting Sreng’, sruk Kralang, Siem Reap province. Its site and the two inscriptions found on it are described in loc. cit., 349-50. This inscription comprising some 30 lines in Khmer, of which only 9 are legible, is perhaps a continuation of K.228 (C V: 238), bearing 43 lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: The 9 legible lines of this inscription record a royal benefice of three tracts of land granted to a Śrī Nṛpasiṃhavarman by Indravarman I and his acquisition of three other tracts under Sūryavarman I. The details of the two transactions are beclouded by numerous lacunæ.


Catalog Number: K.230

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Bĕṅ

Sources: C VI: 241-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 948 = A.D. 1026)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Bĕṅ see № 25, note 2. Found at the site is a red sandstone stele bearing a Buddhist inscription of 100 lines, laid out as follows: face A, 14 lines in Sanskrit; face B, 26 lines in Sanskrit; face C, 30 lines in Khmer; face D, also 30 lines in Khmer. Aymonier (Le Cambodge, II: 351) and Cœdès (C VI: 241) both call attention to what the latter terms the ‘emploi abusif du caractère b, trait caractéristique des inscriptions bouddhiques’.

Synopsis: This inscription of 60 lines records the erection in Śaka 934 of an image of Trailokyanātha by a chief lord Śrī Madhurapaṇḍita in association with his nephews and nieces and the subsequent petition by one of the nephews for a royal benefice under which lands and slaves dedicated to the image would become a royal pious work (rājadharma). The text is well-ordered and clear, with only a few lacunæ, and serves as a good example of the language of the period.


Catalog Number: K.231A

Name: Inscription of Phnoṃ Kaṅvār

Sources: C III: 72-5; AIC, III: 1224-32.

Śaka date: (Śaka 88□ = A.D. 958/67)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Kaṅvār see № 54, note 2.

Synopsis: The last 9 lines of this unusual 25-line inscription are illegible. In the first 16 lines lacunæ interrupt the exposition, but what remains records the case of a runaway slave, his recapture, and his disposition as an example to others tempted to flout the sanctity of royal property. The text is of minor grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.231B

Name: Inscription of Phnoṃ Kaṅvār

Sources: C III: 72-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 888 = A.D. 966)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Kaṅvār is in Batdambang province, 5 kilometers due north-northwest of Sisophon, 19 kilometers due south of Svay Check, and about 32 kilometers due southeast of Sdok Kak Thom. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 304. Cœdès (C III: 72) describes the inscription as ‘gravée sur un monolithe servant de piédroit à l’entrée de la grotte naturelle qui s’ouvre sur le versant nord-ouest de cette colline calcaire, à côté de deux petites tours’. The grotto apparently served as the burial-place and shrine of an ancient queen, identified only as the kanloṅ kamrateṅ ˀañ rājaguhā. Both Aymonier (op.cit., II: 243) and Cœdès (loc.cit.) report that the text was deliberately mutilated, which accounts for its numerous lacunæ.

Synopsis: A short inscription, clear from start to finish. A royal directive is transmitted, through channels as usual, to a lord Paramācārya to regulate the use of gifts made to a defunct queen known as My High Lady of the Royal Grotto. The second passage shows the remarkable flexibility and expressive power of epigraphic Khmer. This is one of the few texts in which the author is named.


Catalog Number: K.231C

Name: Inscription of Phnoṃ Kaṅvār

Sources: C III: 72-5; AIC, III: 1224-1232.

Śaka date: (Śaka 889 = A.D. 967)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Kaṅvār see № 54, note 2 .

Synopsis: This 10-line inscription records a royal directive assigning 5 slaves and a child to the service of the late queen My High Lady of the Royal Grotto, which is placed under the authority of a chaplain named the steñ Rudrācārya.


Catalog Number: K.232N

Name: Piédroit of Phnoṃ Saṅkè Kòṅ

Sources: C VI: 228-33.

Śaka date: (Śaka 928 = A.D. 1006)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Saṅkè Kòṅ, on which stands a now ruined tower, is the Khmer name of a hill in Sakaew province, Thailand, near the village of Lbœk Ampil, west of Banteay Chhmar. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 304, shows it as ‘Prasat Lobœk Ampil’, lying 12.5 kilometers due east by north of Sdok Kak Thom, 30 kilometers due northeast of Aranya Prathet, the same distance due northwest of Sisophon, and 20 kilometers due west of Svay Chek; these distances are not those of modern maps. This inscription of 38 lines is from the north piédroit of the tower’s portal.

Synopsis: The first 12 lines of this inscription record a royal order from Sūryavarman I addressed to a Śrī Vīravarman to integrate three of the latter’s deified kinsmen with the High Lord of the World at an unidentified main sanctuary. An annual allowance to the divinities is provided by the sovereign. Lines 12 to 38 are devoted to a list of 89 adult slaves, with no mention of their donor or their destination.


Catalog Number: K.233

Name: Stele of Tûol Roloṃ Tim

Sources: G. Cœdès, “La stèle de Tûol Roloṃ Tim: Essai d’interprétation par la langue bahnar d’un texte juridique khmer du xe siècle,” in JA, 1954: 49-67, esp. 62-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: Cœdès, JA, 52, opined that the inscription ‘doit remonter à la seconde moitié du xe siècle, …’. I follow the later date given in the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 115).

Provenance: Tûol Roloṃ Tim is the Khmer name of a hillock a short distance east of the village of Roloṃ Tim in Prachinburi province, Thailand. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 304, shows it about 10 kilometers due south of the ‘Passage Dang Kon’ (Cœdès’s Čhoṅ Takò) in the Dangrek chain and about 53 kilometers due north of Aranya Prathet. The red sandstone stele found at the site, now in the National Museum in Bangkok, is described by Aymonier, op. cit., 246-7. Face B of the inscription has suffered hard usage, but 20 lines on face A and 16 lines on face B are legible on estampages deposited in the Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

Synopsis: Dating probably from the reign of Jayavarman V (A.D. 968-1001), this inscription records the trial of a complaint lodged by two plaintiffs against two defendants. They accuse one of having (at least 24 years earlier) leased a tai Kanhyaṅ to a steñ of Vnaṃ Creṅ; they accuse the other of wrongfully offering her up to My Holy High Lord of Śivapattana.1 Lacunæ bar full understanding of the charge and its investigation, but the main lines are sufficiently clear for the text to be lively, full of interest, and rich in grammatical detail.


Catalog Number: K.234N

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Tẵp Siem

Sources: C VI: 234-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 929 = A.D. 1007)

Conventional date: The date is borrowed from the Sanskrit text of K.232S: 22-3 (stanza XI), which is nearly identical with K.234S, 26 lines also in Sanskrit.

Provenance: Pràsàt Tẵp Siem is a group of three ruined brick towers in Sakaew province, Thailand. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 304, shows it lying 14 kilometers due north by west of Sdok Kak Thom. This inscription of 22 lines is from the north piédroit of the central tower.

Synopsis: In the form in which we have it, this simple inscription appears poorly organized and vague. It opens with a list of 48 slaves without mention of their donor or recipient; this is followed by a list of temple property and descriptions of two tracts of land in sruk Cvār Mo. Slaves, property and land all appear to be dedicated to a śivaliṅga presumably housed in that sruk.


Catalog Number: K.235

Name: The Stele of Sdok Kak Thom

Sources: Finot, BEFEO, XV: 53-106; Cœdès et Dupont, BEFEO, XLIII: 56-154, hereafter Dupont; Chakravarti, II (1980): 73, 232; AIC, III: 1233-58 (face D only); Sak-Humphry, 93-193.

Śaka date: (Śaka 974 = A.D. 1052)

Conventional date: This date is conventional, being the latest cited in the text (C: 44-45, stanza CXXIII).

Provenance: Sdok Kak Thom, the ancient Bhadraniketana, is located in Sa Kaew province, Thailand, about 3 kilometers from the Cambodia frontier and some 30 kilometers northeast of Aranya Prathet. Found at the site in the late 19th century is a sandstone stele bearing 340 lines of text, the first 194 in Sanskrit, the remaining 146 in Khmer — 29 lines on face C, 117 lines on face D.

Synopsis: This is the celebrated inscription constituting the basis of Cambodian political and religious history. The longest and best specimen of Angkorian Khmer recovered so far, it exhibits all but a few of the grammatical patterns of the period. Its first purpose is to validate the prerogatives of a line of purohita dating from the reign of Jayavarman II down to the reign of Udayādityavarman II: the eight generations of this line had the exclusive right of officiating before the Sovereign High Lord of the World (kamrateṅ jagat ta rāja) instituted under Jayavarman II. The last of the line, Sadāśiva (Śrī Jayendravarman), is introduced in line D: 43, from which point to the end the second purpose of the text is to record the royal favor which he enjoyed under Sūryavarman I and Udayādityavarman II as well as the estate which he amassed, particularly in Amoghapura. The chronicle culminates in his acquisition of the new Bhadraniketana (lines D: 75, 100) and adjacent lands. The reader will wish to compare this inscription with an earlier chronicle, K.956/2°, in IV, № 32.


Catalog Number: K.237N

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Práḥ Khsèt

Sources: C VI: 293-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 989 = A.D. 1067)

Conventional date: The date, taken from line 13, is so given in the “Liste générale … “ (C VIIIL 115).

Provenance: Pràsàt Práḥ Khsèt is a group of towers located in the sruk of Srey Snam, Siem Riep province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 400, shows it 18 kilometers due northwest of Rovieng, 7 kilometers due south of Chong Kal, and about 4 kilometers southeast of the left bank of the ‘Sting Srêng’. This inscription of 24 lines in Khmer, of which the last 7 are illegible, is from the north piédroit of the central tower.

Synopsis: This inscription records the setting up of a liṅga by My Holy High Lord Sarāma, its assignment by Sūryavarman I to a High Lord of Madhyadeśa, and its restoration following disturbances by My High Lord ˀSo of Madhyadeśa who sets up three other images in Chpar Ransi.


Catalog Number: K.238

Name: Stele of Tưk Čŭm

Sources: C VI: 119-22.

Śaka date: (Śaka 871 = A.D. 949)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The village of Tưk Čŭm (dïk juṃ) is located in western Siem Reap province, roughly 55 kilometers northwest of the town of Siem Reap. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 400, shows it (‘Tœûk Choûm’) about 2 kilometers east of the right bank of the ‘Sting Srèng’ and 15 kilometers north-northeast of ‘M. Krelanh.’ Op.cit., 363, states further that the stele was found under a large tree beside a ruined brick tower in the vicinity. Cœdès (C VI: 119) describes it as a flat slab of red sandstone bearing text on its two sides: 21 lines on the first, 12 on the second, all in Khmer.

Synopsis: This excellent inscription records the setting up of an image of Śrī Trailokyanātha by an ācārya Paramācārya. Face A describes the assignment of land to the divinity, with a particularly interesting gift of land by the governor of Jeṅ Tarāñ which includes a strong hint that worship of Śrī Trailokyanātha had been suspended during the reign of Yaśovarman. Face B lists slaves assigned to the service of the divinity, ending with a provision that the image and all lands and tenements described are the property of the ācārya’s two nephews. The text is rich in grammatical details and well worth close study.


Catalog Number: K.239

Name: Inscription of Kôk Saṃròṅ

Sources: C III: 79-84.

Śaka date: (Śaka 888 = A.D. 966)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The site, known also as Pràsàt Ta Siu (Siou), is located in westernmost Siem Reap province about 6.5 kilometers due northeast of Tœuk Chou (dïk jor) and the same distance due southeast of Spean Srêng. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 400. This inscription opens on the south piédroit of the sanctuary with 21½ lines in Sanskrit followed by 14½ lines in Khmer. The inscription on the north piédroit is headed by 3 lines in Sanskrit inserted at a later date; these are followed by a continuation of the Khmer text of an additional 14 lines. Cœdès notes (C III: 80) that the text on the north piédroit in particular has suffered human damage as well as weathering.

Synopsis: This inscription records the construction of a sanctuary for Śrī Jagannāthakeśvara and the gift to the divinity by several persons of 10 tracts of riceland, together with slaves, cattle, and small articles. One ricefield (lines S: 34-35) is acquired by royal grant as the result of a boxing match (S: 39 to N: 1-3), while another field (N: 3-5) is conveyed to the divinity by a royal directive. The text is of routine grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.240N

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Tà An

Sources: C III: 76-7; AIC, III: 1268-70.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date: C III: 76 assign these two lines to Śaka xiie-xiiie siècles, while the C VIII: 115 gives ‘(?)’.

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Tà An see I, № 76, note 2. This text is on the north piédroit of the south tower.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.240S/1°

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Tà An

Sources: C III: 76-7; AIC, III: 1268-70

Śaka date: (Śaka 89□ = A.D. 968/77)

Conventional date: In line 1 of his transcription Cœdès leaves the year blank, but in C III: 77, note 1, mentions that whereas Aymonier proposed 889, he favors 89x. Either reading is preferable to assigning the text to a full century.

Provenance: Prāsāda tā ˀān lies in westernmost Siem Reap province 6 kilometers due north-northwest of Kralanh, 3.5 kilometers due northeast of Phum Tĕuk Chou (dïk jor), about 45 kilometers east of Sisophon, about 60 kilometers due north-northeast of Batdambang. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 400. This inscription is one of two on the south piédroit of the south tower.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.240S/2°

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Tà An

Sources: C III: 76-7; AIC, III: 1268-70.

Śaka date: (Śaka 901 = A.D. 979)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Tà An see № 76, note 2, K.240S/1° (A.D. 977).

Synopsis: A minor inscription recording the gift to Lokeśvara by four individuals of slaves, small articles, an āśrama, a plantation and cattle.


Catalog Number: K.241S/1°

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Tà An

Sources: C III: 76-8, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date: I take the date from the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 117).

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Tà An see I, № 76, note 2. This text is on the south piédroit of the north tower.

Synopsis: The 7 legible lines of a longer inscription, of onomastic interest only. They comprise a list of 27 adults and 1 child, followed by small articles and cattle.


Catalog Number: K.241S/2°

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Tà An

Sources: C III: 77-8, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1189 = A.D. 1267)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Tà An see I, № 76, note 2.

Synopsis: A 2-line inscription recording the installation of an image of the Buddha. There is no indication of whether the text is on the image or elsewhere.


Catalog Number: K.243

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Kralañ

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 117, untranslated, hereafter Cœdès; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.245

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Tà Kẵṃ

Sources: C III: 90-3; AIC, III: 1276-81.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Tà Kẵṃ is located in Siem Reap province, probably in the sruk of Kralanh, about 40 kilometers due northwest of the Bàrày occidental. It is shown as ‘Ta Kèâm’ on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 400, while the site and its two inscriptions are described in loc. cit., 371-3, where it is called ‘Kedei Ta Kâm’. This inscription is found on the south piédroit of the kiosk or édicule attached to the main sanctuary and consists of 35 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: Lines 1-4 of this inscription record an order from Sūryavarman I the connection of which to the remaining text is not expressly stated. Lines 5-15 tell how the unnamed author won the hand of me Maṇi; that the tale was committed to stone may reflect satisfaction with his bargain but the real motive was probably more pragmatic. Lines 16-35 chronicle the author’s installation of four images commissioned by himself and their assignment to his three children. The text contains a few lacunæ and several inadvertences by the lapicide, some of which have been filled or adjusted. Whatever its shortcomings, it is vivid and full of valuable grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.248

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Tà Kẵṃ Thoṃ

Sources: C III: 94-6; AIC, III: 1284-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Tà Kẵṃ Thoṃ first see № 54, note 2. According to Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: 373-5, who called it ‘Bantéai Ta Keâm’, it lies 400 meters west of Pràsàt Tà Kẵṃ, his ‘Kedei Ta Kâm’. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the inner portal of the east gopura of the inner enceinte. It bore originally 20 or more lines of text, of which 19 in Khmer are legible.

Synopsis: Following one or more lines no longer legible, this inscription records the sale of a piece of land by the unnamed author and the gift of another piece of land to his son and grand-daughter. The text is of interest as much for two intrusions by the lapicide (the most heinous at the head of line 12) as it is in other respects, and is well written and reasonably clear.


Catalog Number: K.249

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Trau

Sources: C III: 97-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1031 = A.D. 1109)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Trau is a small brick tower in the sruk of Angkor Chum, Siem Reap province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 400, shows it at about 45 kilometers due north of the provincial seat and 17 kilometers due east of Rovieng. This inscription of 17 lines in Khmer is from the north piédroit of the tower’s portal.

Synopsis: This short inscription records an inventory of the estate of a khloñ vala of Dharmaśīla and his endowments to the High Lord of the World at Liṅgapura, to a defunct queen, to the High Lord of the World at Chpār Ransi, and to an āśrama in Stuk Vryaṅ.


Catalog Number: K.252

Name: Fragment of Pràsàt Smằn Yŭṅ

Sources: C III: 102; AIC, III: 1297.

Śaka date: (Śaka 864? = A.D. 942?)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Smằn Yŭṅ is located in western Siem Reap province, near, as Aymonier (Le Cambodge, II: 378) says, the village of ‘Phum Mantit Sok.’ The same source, loc.cit., map facing page 400, shows it lying about 34 kilometers due northeast of ‘M. Plang’ and 55 kilometers due east by north of ‘M. Krelanh’. The site consists of three ruined towers of brick, and this fragment is from the south piédroit of the central tower. Its historical interest is remarked by Cœdès (ibid.).

Synopsis: Little coherent meaning can be extracted from this 5-line fragment, which is left unannotated.


Catalog Number: K.253

Name: Inscription of Vằt Thĭpdĕi

Sources: C III: 103-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka 834 = A.D. 912)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Thĭpdĕi is located some distance northwest of Siem Reap in Puok district of Siem Reap province. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 400, which shows ‘Vat Th ĕupedei’ partly hidden by ‘Chou Chakrei’ about 19 kilometers due north-northwest of the village of Puok and 22 kilometers due northeast of ‘M. Plang’ on the river of the same name. See Aymonier’s amusing description of the temple at op.cit., 378-9. This inscription of a single line is engraved, from top to bottom, along an inscription in Sanskrit on the north piédroit of the temple’s portal.

Synopsis: This inscription comprises a single line and is clear throughout.


Catalog Number: K.254

Name: Stele of Trapẵṅ Dón Ón

Sources: C III: 180-92.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1051 = A.D. 1129)

Conventional date: This date is given in lines 18-9 (stanza XXXII) of the Sanskrit text as well as in line B: 2 of the Khmer text.

Provenance: Trapẵṅ Dón Ón lies about 5 kilometers north-northwest of Pràsàt Kôk Pô, itself 4 kilometers due north of the Bàrày Occidental in the sruk of Angkor Thom, Siem Reap province. From the site was recovered a flat stele (o.71 x o.24 meter) bearing an inscription disposed as follows: face A, 47 lines in Sanskrit; face B, 46 lines in Khmer; face c, 23 lines in Sanskrit followed by 24 lines in Khmer; face d, 42 lines in Khmer. The text on faces B and d is a translation of the Sanskrit, while that on face c bears no direct connection with the Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This inscription of 112 lines records the pious works of a kaṃsteṅ Kavīśvara under five sovereigns (Udayādityavarman II, Harṣavarman III, Jayavarman VI, Dharaṇīndravarman I, Sūryavarman II), his endowments to the High Lord of the World at three localities, and royal benefices received by him. The provisions of the endowments as well as the disposition of the slaves are stated in detail. The text is an excellent source of grammatical forms.


Catalog Number: K.255

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Kôk Pô

Sources: BEFEO, XXXVII (1937): 383-7; AIC, III: 1336-40.

Śaka date: (Śaka 900 = A.D. 978)

Conventional date: I take the date from line 15 below and from the ‘Liste générale … ‘ (C VIII: 119).

Provenance: Pràsàt Kôk Pôk is a group of four sanctuaries in Siem Reap province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: maps facing map 400, shows it located on the right bank of the ‘Sting Tauch’ about 28 kilometers upstream from the Grand Lac, 19 kilometers northwest of Siem Reap, and 3 kilometers west of the bàrày of the Angkor group. This inscription is from the west piédroit of the portal of Sanctuary A. A singularity of this text is the use of long ī where others of the same era use short i.

Synopsis: This inscription records 28 slaves and several endowments given to the divinity at Śvetadvīpa by a teṅ tvan of the royal palace. The text is somewhat out of the ordinary in its organization but is carefully written, unambiguous, and free of lacunæ except in the last 5 lines.


Catalog Number: K.256W/2°

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Kôk Pô

Sources: BEFEO, XXXVII (1937): 394-5; AIC, III: 1341-62.

Śaka date: (Śaka 906 = A.D. 984)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Kôk Pô see № 78, note 2. This inscription consists of 6 lines in Sanskrit followed by 10 lines in Khmer. It comes from the west piédroit of an inner portal of Sanctuary B and is the second part of K.256W/1°, dated A.D. 878-977.

Synopsis: This inscription records a royal directive for the integration of the divinity at Śvetadvīpa with Śrī Campeśvara, execution of the terms of an endowment to the latter, and the separation of the latter divinity from Purandarapura. For all its brevity, the text is overloaded with detail and challenging, though it offers some interesting points of grammar.


Catalog Number: K.257N

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Čàr

Sources: C IV: 140-50.

Śaka date: (Śaka 916 = A.D. 994)

Conventional date: The date is taken from line 32 as well as the ‘Liste générale … ‘ (C VIII: 119).

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Čàr see № 82, note 2. This inscription of 39 lines is from the north piédroit of the central brick tower.

Synopsis: This inscription establishes title to a tract of land at Gaṃryāṅ on the part of the mratāñ khloñ Śrī Narapativīravarman, identified in line 32 as a kaṃsteṅ, with an account of how he acquired it. We are told that he convenes six vāp associated with a vāp Vit, who had borrowed property from the chief lord which he cannot return. The royal court decides that a certain Kaṃvai of Rlaṃ Dyan should pay the interest on the loan, while the vāp Vit and his associates surrender the Gaṃryān land as fair value for the borrowed property. Śrī Narapativīravarman subsequently makes gifts to five of the witnesses, who corroborate his statements to the court. The boundaries of the Gaṃryāṅ land are defined and the depositions of the six vāp are witnessed by some thirteen dignitaries. Little can be made of the final passage (lines 32-39), which is riddled with lacunæ.


Catalog Number: K.257S

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Čàr

Sources: C IV: 140-50.

Śaka date: (Śaka 901 = A.D. 979)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Located in Siem Reap province, Pràsàt Čàr is a sanctuary comprising three towers aligned and oriented on the east, lying some 4 kilometers northeast of Pràsàt Kôk Pô. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 400, shows it 18 kilometers north-northwest of Siem Reap. This inscription of 45 lines is from the south piédroit of the central brick tower. The ‘Liste générale … ‘ (C VIII: 118) assigns the text on the south as well as the north piédroit to Śaka 916 (A.D. 994). Though the two texts are related, M. Claude Jacques assigns K.257S to Śaka 901, and I defer to his judgment. Cœdès observes (C IV: 141) that ‘Il y a lieu de supposer que le temple de Pràsàt Čàr correspond au sanctuaire de Bhagavatī élevé par Narapativīravarman sur cette terre de Gamryāṅ, dont l’inscription du piédroit nord a pour but de montrer comment elle avait été acquise’.

Synopsis: This long inscription records the provisions of a royal directive from Jayavarman V granting land to four dignitaries on which to establish sruk and sanctuaries and integrating four divinities under the High Lord of the World at Liṅgapura. The land grant is defined in detail, and 18 tracts acquired by the four dignitaries are also registered.


Catalog Number: K.258

Name: Stele of Saṃroṅ

Sources: C IV: 175-205.

Śaka date: (Śaka post-1029 = A.D. post-1107)

Conventional date: C IV: 178: ‘Il est difficile de déterminer la date à laquelle cette inscription a été composée et gravée ; tout ce qu’on peut dire, c’est qu’elle est postérieure à l’avènement de Dharaṇīndravarman Ier en 1029 ç. (1107 A.D.), mais que les fondations relatées sont toutes antérieures à 1018 ç. (1096 A.D.), date la plus basse que donne le texte khmèr’.

Provenance: The village of Saṃroṅ is located in Siem Reap province, in the sruk of Aṅkor Thoṃ. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 400, and, more clearly, III: frontispiece map, shows it 13 kilometers east by north of Pràsàt Čàr (‘P. Char’) and 4 kilometers northeast of Aṅkor Thoṃ. The stele recovered in the village was described by Aymonier (op.cit., II: 388) as parallelepipedic and standing 1.26 meters high, o.42 meter on its two wider faces, o.38 meter on its two narrower faces. All four faces are covered with text. ‘L’écriture,’ says Cœdès, ‘est cursive, irrégulière, mal gravée, et la lecture de cette stèle offrirait des difficultés insurmontables si la répétition des mêmes formules, des mêmes énumérations ne permettait, par voie de comparaison et de recoupement, d’établir un texte auquel il ne manque en fin de compte que ce qui, sur la pierre, est irrémédiablement perdu’. From his description I gather that the text on three sides runs counter-clockwise, and I follow his arrangement without demurral. Face A comprises 84 lines in Khmer; face B 79 lines in Khmer; face C 17 lines in Khmer and 51 lines in Sanskrit; face D 8 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This is one of the great inscriptions of the period, not so much because of its length (188 lines) as of the variety of grammatical features which it offers. The text is particularly rich in cleft sentences and the periphrastic passive construction; it also abounds in repeated formulaic passages. Its main purpose is to establish title to twenty-one tracts of land acquired by purchase or gift by the author — one Yogīśvarapaṇḍita, who speaks in the first person. The text also records the establishment of two āśrama, the erection of images, and a number of endowments. Each of the land acquisitions follows a uniform plan: the date of purchase, in most cases simply a year; the location of the land; the names of its sellers; property given as its barter-price; and the productivity of the purchase. See Cœdès’s résumé of the text, C IV: 177-8.


Catalog Number: K.259S/2°

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Khnàt

Sources: C VII: 50-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 874 = A.D. 952)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Khnàt, located in western Siem Reap province, is, as Cœdès states (C VII: 50), the name of a modern Buddhist temple on the site of a pre-Angkorian monument com-prising six towers disposed in two rows. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 400, shows it near the left bank of the ‘Sting Tauch’ about 24 kilometers upstream from the Grand Lac and 6 kilometers south of ‘P. Kouk Tauch’. The piédroits of the south tower of the east row bore at least six inscriptions, mutilated in recent times. On the south piédroit is a Sanskrit text in 7 lines, followed by 3 lines in Khmer — the one given here, below which is another Khmer text in 10 lines and another Sanskrit text in 8 lines.

Synopsis: This 3-line inscription records the purchase of a tract of land by two lords, the price they pay for it, and its assignment to a divinity whose name is obliterated.


Catalog Number: K.259S/4°

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Khnàt

Sources: C VII: 50-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Khnàt, located in western Siem Reap province, is as Cœdès states (C VII: 50) the name of a modern Buddhist temple on the site of a pre-Angkorian monument com-prising six towers disposed in two rows. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 400, shows the site near the left bank of the ‘Sting Tauch’ about 24 kilometers upstream from the Grand Lac, and about 6 kilometers south of ‘P. Kouk Tauch’. The piédroits of the south tower in the east row bore at least six inscriptions which have been mutilated in recent times. The south piédroit bears an inscription of 38 lines: lines 1-7 are in Sanskrit; lines 8-10 are in Angkorian Khmer; lines 11-20 are ruined; lines 21-30, in pre-Angkorian and numbered III° by Cœdès, are given here and numbered 4°; lines 31-38 are again in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This 10-line inscription records gifts to Śrī Lokanātha by a queen Śrī Jayadevī, who appears to have received them from a wealthy merchant: a land-grant (bhūmidā), cows, and elephants. It is exceptional in including two admonitions, both innovative. The text is interesting because of unusual wording, challenging because of numerous lacunæ. My provisional rendering depends on many a liberty I have taken in filling in the lacunæ, but the result is far from satisfactory.


Catalog Number: K.260N

Name: Piédroit of Kôk Ó Črưṅ

Sources: C IV: 171-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date: The inscription probably dates from around the time of the inscription on the south piédroit, namely A.D. 1094 (C IV: 171, note liminaire), during the reign of Jayavarman VI.

Provenance: For the location of Kôk Ó Črưṅ see II, № 84, note 2. This inscription, from the north piédroit, consists of 6 lines in Sanskrit followed by 8 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: A ruined inscription recording the gift of land to a kaṃsteṅ Maheśvara by a certain Dutiya.


Catalog Number: K.260S/2°

Name: Inscription of Kôk Ó Črứṅ

Sources: C IV: 171-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1016 = A.D. 1094)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The two tower-sanctuaries of Kôk Ó Črứṅ lie about 3.7 kilometers south of Siem Reap in the province of the same name. This 13-line inscription was engraved above and below a zodiacal diagram of A.D. 922.

Synopsis: This short inscription records the pious works of a steṅ Aruṇa and exhibits two grammatical patterns of interest.


Catalog Number: K.262N

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi

Sources: C IV: 108-18; AIC, II: 774-90.

Śaka date: (Śaka 890 = A.D. 968)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi is the name of a modern temple built on the site of the ancient sanctuary of Dvijendrapura, the remains of which consist of two towers. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 400, shows it on the northern periphery of Siem Reap town on the left bank of the river. He suggests (op.cit., 404) that ‘Braḥ Inkosī[,] peut-être pour Braḥ Indra Kosī[,] est le nom donné à un antique temple dont l’emplacement est occupé actuellement par une pagode modern’; this origin of the name remains to be confirmed. The piédroits of the portal of the south tower, oriented on the east, bear two inscriptions in Khmer. That on the north, the earlier, bears a text of 34½ lines, that on the south (K.262S, A.D. 983) a text of 47 lines.

Synopsis: This inscription, devoid of grammatical interest, reports an inventory of property belonging to a divinity at Dvijendrapura, drawn up for the purpose of assigning it to the sanctuary Superior. It includes small articles (lines 3-17) and 171 slaves of both sexes (lines 17-35). The value of the text is lexical and onomastic. Among the dated inscriptions this is the most extensive list of devadravya encountered so far.


Catalog Number: K.262S/1° and K.263B/2°

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi

Sources: A = K.262S/1°, C IV: 111-2, AIC, II: 774-90; B = K.263B/2°, C IV: 122-3; omitted in AIC, II: 791-804.

Śaka date: (Śaka 904 = A.D. 982)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi see № 59, note 2. This is a composite reading of A, a 27-line inscription on the south piédroit of the south tower, and of B, a 25-line inscription on a stele found in front of the modern temple.

Synopsis: This excellent inscription, full of vivid narrative, is an account of steps taken to confirm title to a tract of land dedicated to a divinity known as My Holy High Lord of Dvijendrapura. This text is well written, clear despite a lacuna in line 18, and contains numerous points of grammar.


Catalog Number: K.262S/2°

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi

Sources: C IV: 108-18; AIC, II: 774-90.

Śaka date: (Śaka 905 = A.D. 983)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi see № 59, note 2. This 13-line inscription is the second of three on the south piédroit of the south tower of the ancient sanctuary of Dvijendrapura.

Synopsis: This inscription records measures taken by Divākarabhaṭṭa to regularize landed property assigned to the divinity at Dvijendrapura. The text is well-ordered, clear, and of more than ordinary grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.262S/3°

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi

Sources: C IV: 108-118; AIC, II: 774-90.

Śaka date: (Śaka 902 = A.D. 980)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi see № 59, note 2. This inscription is the third of three on the south piédroit of the south tower of the ancient sanctuary of Dvijen-drapura.

Synopsis: An 8-line inscription in which four kinsmen (lines 40-41) in the presence of twelve witnesses (lines 41-44) offer a tract of land to the divinity of Dvijendrapura; a ricefield is offered to the same divinity by a lord Śrī Bhaktivikhyāta. The last two lines concern slaves attached to a Vidyāśrama who reside in Dvijendrapura and Vrai Gmuṃ. The text is irregularly organized and lacks clarity of purpose, but exhibits more than one useful point of grammar.


Catalog Number: K.263B/1°

Name: Stele of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi

Sources: C IV: 118-39; omitted by AIC, II: 791-804.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi see I, № 59, note 2. The badly damaged stele bearing this inscription stands in front of the modern temple and measures 1.38 x o.35 meters. Along its top are 2 lines in Sanskrit, while face A shows 24 lines in Sanskrit still legible; face B has 60 lines in Khmer; face C, 59 lines in Sanskrit; face D, 66 lines in Khmer. Except as noted, all interpolations are by Cœdès. For K.263B/2° see my composite version in I, № 87.

Synopsis: A damaged inscription recording other pious works on behalf of the High Lord of the World at Dvijendrapura by Divākarabhaṭṭa and persons associated with him. Its value as a specimen of grammar is moderate.


Catalog Number: K.263D/1°

Name: Stele of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi

Sources: C IV: 118-39; omitted in AIC, II: 791-804.

Śaka date: (Śaka 906 = A.D. 984)

Conventional date: The date is taken from the ‘Liste générale … ‘ (C VIII: 121).

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi see № 59, note 2.

Synopsis: These 17 lines record an inventory of property assigned to the divinity at Dvijendrapura and to Bhagavatī, and are a good source of lexical data.


Catalog Number: K.263D/2°

Name: Stele of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi

Sources: C IV: 118-39; omitted in AIC, II: 791-804.

Śaka date: (Śaka 906 = A.D. 984)

Conventional date: The date is taken from the ‘Liste générale … ‘ (C VIII: 121).

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi see № 59, note 2.

Synopsis: These 13 lines record property including male and female slaves assigned by Divākarabhaṭṭa to the divinity at Dvijendrapura as a royal offering.


Catalog Number: K.263D/3°

Name: Stele of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi

Sources: C IV: 118-39; omitted in AIC, II: 791-804.

Śaka date: (Śaka 906 = A.D. 984)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi see № 59, note 2.

Synopsis: This 24-line inscription records the gift of sruk Madhusūdana as a royal benefice to Divākarabhaṭṭa, its dedication to the divinity at Dvijendrapura, and assignment to it of slaves and chattels. Numerous lacunæ preclude full understanding of the text and make a full description of the grammar pointless.


Catalog Number: K.263D/4°

Name: Stele of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi

Sources: C IV: 118-39; omitted in AIC, II: 791-804.

Śaka date: (Śaka 906 = A.D. 984)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Práḥ Ĕinkosĕi see № 59, note 2. Dated 23 years before the year to which it is assigned (C VIII: 121), this inscription is found at the bottom of face D of the stele where it was presumably cut in Śaka 906 or thereabouts.

Synopsis: This 12-line inscription, the full sense of which is obscured by lacunæ, records the gift by Rājendravarman of a sruk and riceland to Divākarabhaṭṭa, who assigns them to the Vidyāśrama in the sovereign’s name. A royal directive confirms the conveyance to the latter.


Catalog Number: K.265N

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Lẵk Nẵṅ

Sources: C IV: 102-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 881 = A.D. 960)

Conventional date: The “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 121) assigns both faces of K.265 to Śaka 881 and C IV: 102 holds the two faces to be contemporaneous, assigning K.265S to ‘début de 960 A.D.’ I arbitrarily assign K.265S to A.D. 959, K.265N to A.D. 960.

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Lẵk Nẵṅ see № 44, note 2.

Synopsis: The opening passage of this inscription contains a lacuna which prevents its full purport from being understood. Hence the purpose of the inscription as a whole is uncertain and my rendering of it cannot be taken as more than conjectural. What appears beyond doubt is that a royal directive bids two ecclesiastics consult with a lord Raṇaparākrama and unite an unidentified śivaliṅga with a Vraḥ Thkval. An unidentified yajamāna settles an endowment on the divinities and it is stipulated that slaves are exempt from diversion to cultivation of cañcūla at the sanctuary of Vraḥ Thkval.


Catalog Number: K.265S

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Lẵk Nẵṅ

Sources: C IV: 102-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 881 = A.D. 959)

Conventional date: Cœdès (C IV: 102) assigns this inscription to early A.D. 960.

Provenance: Pràsàt Lẵk Nẵṅ is a small brick tower a short distance northeast of Prè Rup. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, III: frontispiece map, shows it lying 4.1 kilometers southwest of ‘Phnom Bauk’ and the same distance east of the ‘Rivière de Siem Réap’. For Aymonier’s translation of the text see op.cit., 9-11.

Synopsis: This inscription of 25 lines is a record of lands in Sindūra acquired under a royal directive by a lord named Śrī Raṇavikhyāta. The details of five transactions are given. The text is well written, generally clear, and a good source of grammatical particulars.


Catalog Number: K.266C

Name: Inscription of Bàt Čuṃ

Sources: JA, 1908.2: 233.

Śaka date: (Undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Bàt Čuṃ see № 44B, note 2. This single line is found at the end of a Sanskrit inscription on the right piédroit of the central tower.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.266S/2°

Name: Inscription of Bàt Čuṃ

Sources: JA, 1908.2: 229-30.

Śaka date: (Śaka 882 = A.D. 960)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Bàt Čuṃ is the modern name of a group of three brick towers situated in Siem Reap province about 3 kilometers east-northeast of the northeast corner of Angkor Vat. It is shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, III: frontispiece map, roughly half a kilometer south of ‘Srah Srâng’. This inscription of 12 lines is from the lower part of the right piédroit of the south tower. Furnishing no translation of the Khmer text, Cœdès (JA, 1908: 241, note 3) advises: ‘M. Aymonier (Cambodge, III, 13) a proposé de ce texte une traduction à la-quelle nous renvoyons provisoirement’.

Synopsis: This inscription records a royal directive validating an endowment made by a holy lord Śrī Kavīndrārimathana to a Buddhist divinity of the ˀanrāy of Kuṭīśvara and on behalf of a Saugatāśrama. The endowment includes means of subsistence (upāya), a sruk, and 128 slaves (ˀanak phle) given by the sovereign, the donor, and a chief lord Unādbhutasaṃgrāma.


Catalog Number: K.267

Name: Inscription of Bàt Čuṃ

Sources: JA, 1908.2: 229.

Śaka date: (Śaka 875 = A.D. 953)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Bàt Čuṃ see № 47, note 2. This single line is found at the end of a Sanskrit inscription on the right piédroit of the south tower.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.269

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Kravằn

Sources: C IV: 74.

Śaka date: (Śaka 843 = A.D. 921)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Kravằn is a group of five brick tower-sanctuaries located in Siem Reap pro-vince. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, III, frontispiece map, showing it 2.8 kilometers due southeast of the outer wall of Angkor Thom. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the portal of the sanctuary south of the central tower.

Synopsis: This short inscription registers the setting up of an image of Śrī Tribhuvanasvāmi by a chief lord Śrī Vīrendrādhipativarman and the assignment to its service of 2 tamrvac, 17 males slaves, and 36 female slaves. The text is of minor grammatical interest but a good source of onomastic data.


Catalog Number: K.270N

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Kravằn

Sources: C IV: 70-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka 843 = A.D. 921)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Kravằn see № 15, note 2.

Synopsis: This inscription comprises two texts of the same date. In the first a kaṃsteṅ ˀ Mahīdharavarman conveys to Śrī Trailokyanātha 132 conscripts and allowances for their maintenance. In the second a kaṃsteṅ ˀ Jayavīravarman conveys to the same divinity some 45 conscripts, a tract of riceland, and milled rice. Both texts are logically organized, clear, and rich in onomastic detail but of minor grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.270S/3°

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Kravằn

Sources: C IV: 70.

Śaka date: (Śaka 893 = A.D. 971)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Kravằn see № 15, note 2. Only a few of the 10 lines of this inscription are decipherable.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.270S

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Kravằn

Sources: C IV: 68-70; AIC, I: 315-26.

Śaka date: (Śaka 843 = A.D. 921)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Kravằn see № 15, note 2.

Synopsis: This inscription records the setting up of an image of Śrī Trailokyanātha by a kaṃsteṅ ˀ Śrī Mahīdharavarman and the assignment to it of approximately 105 slaves, all neatly categorized. The text, of routine interest, is clear throughout but offers few points of grammar not already described.


Catalog Number: K.271S

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Kravằn

Sources: C IV: 75-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 843 = A.D. 921)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Kravằn see №16, note 2. The condition of the north piédroit makes it unusable.

Synopsis: This inscription, conforming to the pattern of № 18, reports the gift to the bhagavatī Śrī of three slave teams by the kaṃsteṅ ˀ Śrī Mahīdharavarman. The first two teams are assigned to sruk Gaṃryaṅ, the third to a sruk whose name is obliterated. The text is clearly organized and a good source of onomastic data.


Catalog Number: K.272

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Kdĕi

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jaya-varman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 103, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.274

Name: Piédroits of Tà Prohm

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jaya-varman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 97-119, untranslated, hereafter Cœdès; APK I : 343-65. All interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.276

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Tà Kèv

Sources: C IV: 153-5; AIC, II: 812-6; cf. APK, II: 70-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Tà Kèv (Ta Keo) is located in the Aṅkor complex at the west end of the Bàrày oriental and on the rivière de Siem Reap, about 2 kilometers from the east wall of Aṅkor Thoṃ. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the west inner portal of the outer gopura, and bears 25 lines of which the first is a invocation in Sanskrit, the remainder in Khmer. It is described briefly by Aymonier, Le Cambodge, III: 39.

Synopsis: This inscription records gifts by a Śrī Yogīśvarapaṇḍita to the High Lord of the World at nine localities as well as to My High Lady of ˀAṅve Danle. It is well organized but largely non-sentential, while a few textual obscurities give it added interest.


Catalog Number: K.277

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Tà Kèv

Sources: C IV: 155-60.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Tà Kèv see № 57, note 2. This inscription is from the two piédroits of the outer portal of the east gopura of the inner enceinte. The south piédroit bears 21 lines: 1 line in Sanskrit, 16 lines in Khmer, 4 more lines in Sanskrit. The north piédroit bears 34 lines: 5 lines illegible, 15 lines in ruined Khmer, 8 lines in Sanskrit, 6 lines in Khmer largely legible.

Synopsis: The south piédroit of this inscription records an image set up by a kaṃsteṅ ˀ Śivācārya but is thereafter concerned with pious works carried out by Śrī Yogīśvarapaṇḍita on behalf of the High Lord of the World at Liṅgapura and My High Lady of ˀAṅve Danle; this is finished off with a clearly worded varaśāpa. The north piédroit consists of 20 lines from which no sense can be drawn, 8 lines in Sanskrit, and 6 lines continuing to record, rarely with much clarity, the pious works of Śrī Yogīśvarapaṇḍita.


Catalog Number: K.284

Name: Piédroits of Tà Nei

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jaya-varman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 105-7, untranslated, hereafter Cœdès; APK I : 343-65. All interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.290/1°

Name: Stele of Tép Praṇaṃ

Sources: C III: 231-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka 937 = A.D. 1015)

Conventional date: The “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 125) gives the Śaka year as 927, as does C III: 232, to which is appended note 2: ‘Le chiffre transcrit ici 2 présente à sa partie médiane un petit trait ; peut-être faut-il lire 3’. I have taken the later date.

Provenance: Pràsàt Tép Praṇaṃ is a Buddhist sanctuary lying a few hundred meters north of the royal palace in Angkor Thom. Found on the site is a stele believed to have been set up originally in the Saugatāśrama, probably located on the south side of the Bàrày Oriental, well outside the walls of Angkor Thom. The four faces of the stele bear in inscription in Sanskrit of 56 lines on face A and 54 lines on the three other faces. It also bears two inscriptions in Khmer, curiously disposed line by line around the four faces as follows: faces ABCD, 2 lines each, with a third line on face C.

Synopsis: This short inscription records an order from Sūryavarman I for the construction of an āśrama affiliated with the Saugatāśrama and for an endowment of allowances, slaves, and three ricefields for its support.


Catalog Number: K.290/2°

Name: Stele of Tép Praṇaṃ

Sources: C III: 231-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka 937 = A.D. 1015)

Conventional date: On this date see № 37, note 3.

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Tép Praṇaṃ see № 37, note 2.

Synopsis: A short ruined inscription from which only a little sense can be extracted.


Catalog Number: K.291

Name: Inscription of Phĭmãnàkàs

Sources: C III: 199-204; AIC, I: 327-36.

Śaka date: (Śaka 932 = A.D. 910)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This inscription is from the two piédroits of the east portal of the chapel atop the sanctuary of Phǐmãnàkàs in Siem Reap province. The text on the south piédroit com-prises 26 lines in Sanskrit followed by 1 line and 4 characters in Khmer. The text on the north piédroit comprises 32 lines in Khmer, The date 832, given in numerals in the Khmer text, is confirmed in (stanza XII) of the Sanskrit text (lines 23-6), ‘dont les données astronomiques correspondent au 31 mars 910 A.D.’ Except as noted, all inter-polations are by Cœdès and repeated in AIC.

Synopsis: This inscription records the setting up by a lord Satyāśraya of an image of Śrī Trailokyanātha and the gift to it by him, two associates, and Yaśovarman of some 90 slaves and two tracts of riceland. The text is a good source of grammatical, lexical, and onomastic data.


Catalog Number: K.292/1°

Name: The Oath of Allegiance to Sūryavarman I

Sources: C III: 205-16; AIC, II: 870-904.

Śaka date: (Śaka 933 = A.D. 1011)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This first part of K.292 is a composite prepared by G. Cœdès from eight inscriptions found in the central pavilion of the east gopura leading into the inner court of the Phĭmãnàkàs. All eight consist of the same oath of allegiance but none is preserved in its entirety. In each case but one they are followed by a different list of tamrvāc signatories, here given as K.292/II°. The line numbers given here are those of the composite text, which gives no lines from the eight originals. It should be noted that Cœdès (C III: 208, notes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7) has regularized the orthography.

Synopsis: This composite text, its spare elegance comparable to the 11 lines of K.484, is a classic exemplar of Angkorian Khmer. Each sentence fulfills its office economically but with grace. Not a word is wasted. Exhibiting a wide range of grammar, it should be mastered by every student of the language. Following a preamble (lines 2-6), the text consists of 9 articles with a succinct closing hope for the rewards of absolute loyalty.


Catalog Number: K.292/2°

Name: The Oath of Allegiance to Sūryavarman I

Sources: C III: 205-16; AIC, II: 870-904.

Śaka date: (Śaka 933 = A.D. 1011)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Reproduced here are the separate lists of signatories to the oath given in № 30.

Synopsis: What follows, here and in № 32, consists of lists of the signatories to the oath of allegiance given in № 30. The monotony of these lists is superficial: in reality they comprise a rich store of onomastic and toponymic data.


Catalog Number: K.293

Name: Inscriptions of the Bàyon

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes. XIX. – La date du Bàyon. Appendice : Les inscriptions du Bàyon,” in BEFEO, XXVIII (1928).1-2 : 104-12, untranslated; C III : 193-8, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of the Bàyon see III, № 29, note 2. This series is continued in № 28. Both series are fully interpreted by Bernard Philippe Groslier in “Inscriptions du Bayon,” in Jacques Dumarçay, Le Bayon : Histoire architecturale du temple / Inscriptions du Bayon par Bernard Philippe Groslier. Publications de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient. Mémoires Archéologiques III-2 (Paris: École française d’Extrême-Orient, 1973), Deuxième partie, 83-306.

Synopsis: What follows comprises 23 short texts from the Bàyon. As in the case of № 22, to which this series forms an important addition, their precise location is not indicated and their obvious structure requires no description.


Catalog Number: K.294

Name: Stele of the Bàyon

Sources: C III: 197-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of the Bàyon see III, № 29, note 2. This inscription is on the back of a stele representing the Buddha in a scene done in bas-relief.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.298

Name: Inscriptions from the Galerie des Princes

Sources: Étienne Aymonier, “Quelques notions sur les inscriptions en vieux khmèr (suite et fin),” in JA, 1883.2: 199-228; BC, 1911: 201.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date:

Provenance: These 30 short inscriptions are from the west part of the south Galerie des bas-reliefs at Aṅkor Vằt, Siem Reap province.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.299

Name: Inscription from the Galerie des enfers

Sources: NIC II/III: 156-63, hereafter Pou.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date:

Provenance: These 36 short inscriptions are from the east part of the south Galerie des bas-reliefs at Aṅkor Vằt, Siem Reap province.

Synopsis: The modern reader may be tempted to take this inscription as an example of the Indian mania for classification or as a lesson in brahanical pedantry, but for those capable of reading it the text must have once served an improving moral purpose in enumerating the 33 hells and those who go there. Because of the condition of the stone, three hells are missing from the list: in 21, 31 and 32, among which the Atiraurava presumably numbers. Apart from the colorful hell names, the inscription contains lexical data in abundance and is well worth the student’s close study.


Catalog Number: K.324

Name: Piédroits of Lolei

Sources: NIC II: 59-64, II/III: 62-6; AIC, I: 488-503. For the Sanskrit text see Barth et Bergaigne, Inscriptions sanscrites de Campā et du Cambodge, № XXXIX: 319 and Majumdar, Inscriptions of Kambuja, № 70: 138.

Śaka date: (Śaka 815 = A.D. 893)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Lolei, the ancient Hariharālaya, is the name of a group of four brick towers constituting a sanctuary located on an artificial island in the Indrataṭāka, and is part of the Roluos group some 11 kilometers due southeast of Angkor Wat. The south and north piédroits of the portal to the north tower bear an inscription of 94 lines of which 79 are in Khmer. They are disposed as follows: on the south piédroit, 11½ lines in Sanskrit, 41½ lines in Khmer; on the north piédroit, 3½ lines in Sanskrit, 37½ lines in Khmer, 2 final lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This inscription is a straightforward enumeration of gifts by Yaśovarman to a newly installed image of Śrī Indravarmeśvara. While its grammar is routine, it is a good source of lexical and onomastic data.


Catalog Number: K.329

Name: Inscription of Lolei

Sources: NIC II/III: 76-7; AIC, I: 537-41.

Śaka date: (Śaka 815 = A.D. 893)

Conventional date: The date is not mentioned in the text. I take it from the ‘Liste générale … ‘ (C VIII: 133), but have no way of knowing how it was determined.

Provenance: For the location of Lolei see № 5, note 2. This inscription, all in Khmer, is from the false portal of the north tower and comprises 11 lines on the east face, 18 lines on the west face.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.340

Name: Stele of Kôk Čằn

Sources: C VI: 81-2.

Śaka date: (Śaka 8th century = A.D. 807-77)

Conventional date: Of the date in line 1 only the last 7 is legible. The “Liste générale des inscriptions du Cambodge” (C VIII: 135) recognizes the text as Angkorian and assigns it to the viiie siècle çaka (A.D. 778-877), which I therefore interpret as A.D. 807-877.

Provenance: The village of Kôk Čằn is located in Siem Reap province about 12 kilometers east of the Roluos group, though the map before page 401 in Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II, places it 16 kilometers due east-northeast. The small stele found in the village bears on one face an inscription of 13 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.341N

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Nãk Buos

Sources: C VI: 22-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 622? = A.D. 701?)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is [7]00/[7]01 (Billard, 7).

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Nãk Buos see № 19, note 3. This inscription, from the north piédroit of tower L, comprises 12 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription records the acquisition of a tract of land on behalf of Śiva and a definition of its bounds. After its first provision it moves into an exhortation to devotees of Śiva and a promise of their felicity; this is followed by an injunction that senior clerics welcome newcomers to the sanctuary, presumably located on the land in question, then by a provision that all gifts to Śiva are to be under the authority of the elder clerics. It ends with an admonition to anyone desecrating the property. The text lacks the sharp focus of many inscriptions of the time but is a good source of grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.341S

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Nãk Buos

Sources: C VI: 23-6; CJ ms.

Śaka date: (Śaka 596 = A.D. 674)

Conventional date: The uncertain date of this text is discussed in detail in Cœdès’s note liminaire (C VI: 23, including note 3). The Common Era correspondence, calculated on his conclusion, is Monday, 17 April, A.D. 674, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 5).

Provenance: Pràsàt Nãk Buos is an important temple in the far north of Preah Vihear province, lying some 12 kilometers east of Choam Khsant and 22 kilometers southwest of the intersection of the frontier with Thailand and Laos. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: 230-1, describes its location in detail, while his map, op.cit., facing page 224, shows it at the foot of a dip in the Dangrek escarpment about 15 kilometers east-northeast of phum Rolom Thmâ. This inscription, from the south piédroit of tower L, comprises 13 lines, the first 3 in Sanskrit, followed by 9 in Khmer and 1 final line in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This inscription reports a royal order to the Superior of an unnamed āśrama directing him to carry out five tasks, two of which prescribe conformity with Liṅgapura. The condition of the final passage (lines 9-12) prevents our knowing whether this was the chief purpose of the inscription or whether the tasks were ever executed. Lines 4-9 are logically organized, clear notwithstanding a number of lacunṭ, and are of interest as a specimen of the language of the period.


Catalog Number: K.342E

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Nẵk Buos

Sources: C VI: 236-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 937 = A.D. 1015)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Nẵk Buos see I, № 74, note 2. This inscription of 50 lines is from the east piédroit of the south central portal of the hall standing before the central tower.

Synopsis: Despite its condition, this inscription is worth examining for the sake of a few structures and lexical items.


Catalog Number: K.342W

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Nẵk Buos

Sources: C VI: 236-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 930 = A.D. 1008)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Nẵk Buos see I, № 74, note 2. This inscription of 21 lines is from the west piédroit of the south central portal of the hall before the central tower.

Synopsis: This short inscription records the gift by a kaṃsteṅ Kavīśvaravarman to Sūryavarman I of small articles and land, which the sovereign passes on to the divinities at Śivapāda, Liṅgapura and ˀAṅve Danle. Details of the text are of grammatical and lexical interest.


Catalog Number: K.343

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Nãk Buos

Sources: C VI: 156-60.

Śaka date: (Śaka 896 = A.D. 974)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Nãk Buos is located in Preah Vihear (C VIII: 134 places it in Kompong Thom) province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 224, shows it lying about 14 kilometers south of the Thai frontier and about 45 kilometers due north of Mlu Prei; op.cit., 231 places it ‘à quelques lieues vers l’Est du village of Rolom Thmâ’. This inscription occupies the south and north piédroits of the east portal of sanctuary II.

Synopsis: Another inscription of the first quality. In it the royal preceptor reports to Jayavarman V that a vāp Īśānaśiva and his family as an act of piety have acquired a piece of land assigned to Śiva at Bhe (‘the Otters’), developed it, then surrendered it to himself. the royal preceptor, who returns it to Śiva. A royal directive confirms these actions and orders the delimitation of the Bhe land. From line S: 23 the text is taken up with three lists of slaves: one apparently given to the divinity by the vāp Īśānaśiva and his family, one assigned to the kaṃsteṅ ˀ the adhyāpaka of Gaurīndrapura, and one assigned to Nārāyaṇa by the lady Dharaṇendradevī. These are laid out in three columns, filling the remainder of the south piédroit and occupying the whole of the north piédroit. The writing of the expository matter (lines 1-22) is deliberate, unambiguous, and devoid of lacunæ except in the last three lines.


Catalog Number: K.344

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Nãk Buos

Sources: C VI: 160-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka 907 = A.D. 985)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Nãk Buos see № 74, note 2. This inscription of 42 lines is from the south piédroit of tower K, and consists of 4 lines in Sanskrit followed by 38 lines in Khmer. Cœdès notes (C VI: 160) that the analysis of it given by Aymonier (Le Cambodge, II: 236) ‘ne correspond qu’approximativement au texte original, mais je ne prétends pas que mon essai de traduction soit parvenu à en saisir entièrement le sens. Il se peut d’ailleurs que ce texte ne soit pas complet et que l’inscription se soit continuée sur le piédroit nord dont les explorateurs, qui ont décrit le temple, ne précisent pas s’il est encore en place. … ‘.

Synopsis: This inscription records confirmation of a claim by a steñ of Vraḥ Tannot to certain land which had been acquired and developed by his father the lord Śrī Rājendrasiṃha, ratified by Rājendravarman, and dedicated to the divinity at Śivapāda by the lord’s niece, a tāñ of My Holy High Lord of Candrapura. The land in question is de-limited and given over to the steñ of Vraḥ Tannot. The text, replete with obscurities, is challenging while the sense of the last two passages (lines 36-42) is muddled either by misreadings or inadvertences by the lapicide. It is nonetheless an excellent source of grammatical and lexical details.


Catalog Number: K.347W

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Thnăl Svày

Sources: C VI: 181-2, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Thnăl Svày is located in the sruk of Čẵṃ Khsàn, Práḥ Vihãr province. Cœdès places it 12 kilometers north-northeast of Čẵṃ Khsàn; Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 224, shows a ‘Thnal Svay’ about 8 kilometers due east of ‘Chéâm Khsan’, and a ‘Prasat Thnal Svay’ 9 kilometers northwest of the same center. His description of both sites, loc. cit., 225-8, makes it clear that the sanctuary in question here is to the northeast, which Aymonier calls ‘Le grand Thnâl Svay’. These three inscriptions are on the west piédroit of the north portal of gopura I. The first comprises 3 lines in Sanskrit and 20 lines in Khmer; the second, 4 lines in Khmer; the third, 17 lines, of which the last 6 are wholly ruined.

Synopsis: A set of three inscriptions from which no coherent meaning can be developed.


Catalog Number: K.349 and K.348

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Tà Rŏs

Sources: C V: 108-13.

Śaka date: (Śaka 876 = A.D. 954)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The Pràsàt Tà Rŏs group is located in Kompong Thom province a short distance south of Pràsàt Nãk Buos. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 224, shows the latter at the foot of the Dangrek chain some 40 kilometers due north of Mlu Prei and 20 kilometers due east of ‘Chéâm Khsan’, though Cœdès (C V: 108) puts it only 7 kilometers east of Čãṃ Khsàn. The south piédroit of the central sanctuary bears a Khmer inscription, K.349, of 32 lines. The north piédroit of the west portal of the sanctuary’s east gopura bears its continuation, a Khmer inscription, K.348, of 36 lines.

Synopsis: This is a challenging inscription of 68 lines which registers the accumulation of landed property by a steñ ˀ Śivācārya. His acquisitions begin on the south piédroit with two tracts of land given him as honorariums. The remainder of the south piédroit and the whole of the north piédroit record five other tracts acquired by purchase. The text is another good specimen of Angkorian Khmer and replete with instructive grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.350

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Thnăl Čhuk

Sources: C VI: 187-90.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Thnăl Čhuk is located in sruk Čẵṃ Khsàn, Práḥ Vihãr province. Cœdès places it about 9 kilometers southeast of Čẵṃ Khsàn. As with № 59, Aymonier, La Cambodge, II: map facing page 224, shows a ‘P. Thnal Chhûk’ some 5 kilometers southwest of ‘Rolom Thmar’ and also a ‘Thnal Chhûk’ about 3 kilometers southeast of ‘Rolom Thmar’; in his text (loc. cit., 223-4) these are described as about 6 kilometers southeast of ‘Rolom Thmâ’ and a league and a half south of ‘Rolom Thmâ’ respectively. This inscription is from the forepart of the sanctuary south-east of Čẵṃ Khsàn, and consists of 22 lines.

Synopsis: The south piédroit of this inscription records a royal directive from Rājendravarman in response to a petition by a steñ ˀācārya Rudrā for the cell or cells at Śāntipada to be placed under a steñ Pañcagavya. To the cell(s) are assigned 53 slaves, while to the High Lord of the World at Liṅgapura are assigned a modest allowance, cattle, and 4 ricefields. The north piédroit lists 10 slaves and a ricefield offered by the steñ Pañcagavya and ends in an innovative varaśāpa. Despite lacunæ and several inadvertences by the lapicide, the text is generally clear and full of good grammar.


Catalog Number: K.351

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Thnăl Čhuk

Sources: C VI: 191.

Śaka date: (Śaka 914 = A.D. 992)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The ‘Liste générale … ‘ (C VIII: 136) locates Pràsàt Thnăl Čhuk in Kompong Thom province, but current maps show it in Preah Vihear province. The sanctuary is a group of five brick towers described (C VI: 191) as lying about 9 kilometers southeast of Čẵm Khsàn. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 224, shows it the same distance southeast of ‘Kap Khmum’ and 43 kilometers due north-northwest of Mlu Prei. This inscription of 13 lines is from the south piédroit of the northwest tower.

Synopsis: This unusual inscription emanates from the royal court of justice and records modest gifts to Nārāyaṇa by a steñ Śikhāntarācārya: two female slaves and a monthly allowance of rice. A previous endowment with ricefields and other slaves is barely referred to. There follow a routine varaśāpa by members of the court and a provision for the management of the endowment. For all its brevity, the text offers some welcome points of grammar.


Catalog Number: K.352

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Kantŏp

Sources: C V: 126-32.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: I follow the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 137), though mention in line S: 5 of Rājendravarman narrows the date down to his reign (A.D. 944-968).

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Kantŏp see II, № 70. This inscription is from the two piédroits of the central sanctuary. The south piédroit bears 2 lines in Sanskrit and 37 lines in Khmer; the north piédroit bears 46 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription of 83 lines records a royal order for the integration of the sanctuary of a śivaliṅga at Rudrapada (Pràsàt Kantŏp) with the sanctuary at Śivapāda (Pràsàt Nẵk Buos) at the request of a steñ Mahendrāṇī, who founded the former. A good summary of its contents is given by Cœdès (C V: 126). This text is of the first quality, fairly free of lacunæ, and devoid of major problems of interpretation. The closing varaśāpa offers a good illustration of the freedom of expression possible in this constrained epigraphic style.


Catalog Number: K.353N

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Kantŏp

Sources: C V: 133-42.

Śaka date: (Śaka 968 = A.D. 1046)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Kantŏp is a group of three ruined towers in the sruk of Čẵm Khsan (Choam Khsan), Práḥ Vihãr province, some 18 kilometers due south of the Dangrek escarpment. Cœdès (C V: 125) places it a short distance south of Pràsàt Tà Rŏs, 1.5 kilometers north of Pràsàt Thnăl Svày, and the same distance west-northwest of Pràsàt Thnăl Čhuk. This last site is shown by Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 224, 5 kilometers south-southeast of ‘Chéâm Khsan’. This inscription of 57 lines is from the north piédroit of the south tower. It opens with 4 lines in Sanskrit, followed by 53 lines in Khmer. Except as noted, all interpolations are by Cœdès.

Synopsis: This purpose of this frustrating inscription is to record the conveyance to a vraḥ kaṃmrateṅ ˀ Vidyeśvarapaṇḍita, by order of Sūryavarman I, of a tract of land in sruk Thpal as payment for certain cult objects borrowed at high interest from the sanctuary of Rudraśānti. The particulars of the transaction are obscured by the condition of the stone in lines 5-11 and 39-57. The text is of only moderate grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.353S

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Kantŏp

Sources: C V: 133-42.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Kantŏp see II, № 70, note 2. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the south tower; it bears 2 lines in Sanskrit followed by 34 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription, which has a distant connection with № 13 through the steñ Mahendrāṇī and his son, opens with a list of some 22 slaves and 3 ricefields offered by the reigning sovereign to Bhagavatī. From line 8 it moves into the bewildering history of a ricefield acquired in the aftermath of a trial over a stolen buffalo, the point of which is establishment of the ownership of the field in question. Unresolvable obscurities in the wording as well as expository innovations and lacunæ make the text difficult but full of interest.


Catalog Number: K.356N

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Khnà

Sources: BEFEO, XLIII (1943-1946): 8-11.

Śaka date: (Śaka 902 = A.D. 980)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This inscription is from the north piédroit of the south portal of the east gopura of Pràsàt Khnà, a sanctuary located in Preah Vihear province about 27 kilometers due south of the Thai frontier and the same distance due northwest of Mlu Prey. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 224. According to Aymonier, op.cit., 220, it is so named from three khnā trees growing in its reservoir. From the same sanctuary come K.355, K.356S, K.660, and K.661.

Synopsis: This 26-line inscription records a royal directive defining the prerogatives, exemptions and obligations of cells in Janapada and Trivikramapada. Particularly well written and unambiguous, the text is a good source of grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.357

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Kŏmphơṅ

Sources: C VI: 41, not translated; AIC, I: 573-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date: Aymonier, op.cit., 220, and Cœdès, C VI: 41, both attribute this inscription to Śaka viie siècle; the earlier date is given in the later “Liste générale” (loc.cit., 137).

Provenance: Pràsàt Kŏmphơm (or Kŏmpơṅ) is a small brick tower which the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 136) locates in Kompong Thom province but, since the redrawing of provincial boundaries, is now in the sruk of Tbeng Meanchey, Preah Vihear province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 224, shows it 28 kilometers due west by north of Mlu Prei, a short distance south of Pràsàt Khnà. This places it only a few kilometers north or northwest of the provincial capital. This inscription of 24 lines is from the south piédroit of the sanctuary’s portal.

Synopsis: This inscription contains a single sentence of grammatical interest but is otherwise of onomastic value only. Its first 18½ lines record the names of slaves and palms assigned to five localities by a group of ten or more women of rank. The last 5½ lines appear to be an addition unrelated to what precedes them.


Catalog Number: K.366

Name: Stele of Văt Phˀu

Sources: C V: 288-95.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1061 = A.D. 1139)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Văt Phˀu see II, № 21, note 2. This inscription is from a flat stele with text on three sides, laid out as follows: face A, 12 lines in Sanskrit followed by 18 lines in Khmer; face b, 28 lines in Khmer; face C, 9 lines in Khmer, the latter including numerous lacunæ.

Synopsis: This inscription of 55 lines records the pious works of a cleric whose name is obliterated (śrī □□āka bhagavan) in setting up images of Śiva, Bhagavatī Mahīṣāsuramardanī, Bhagavatī Śrī, Viṣṇu, Śaṃkaranārāyaṇa, and the royal Vināyaka. Endowments are made to these divinities and others, and slaves are assigned to their service. The text, of routine grammatical interest, ends with an inventory of property belonging to the Bhadreśvarāśrama.


Catalog Number: K.369

Name: Piédroit of Văt Pˀră Thˀat Cˀơṅ Cˀŭm

Sources: C VI: 281-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Văt Pˀră Thˀat Cˀơṅ Cˀŭm is an ancient brick tower located in Sakon Nakhon, Thailand, shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 144, as ‘Sa Khun Lo Khon’. The site is briefly described at loc. cit., 155-6, as ‘L’inscription khmère du Mœuong Sakun’. This inscription is from the north piédroit, bearing 12 lines.

Synopsis: A short inscription in two parts, of interest chiefly because it gives evidence of having been composed by an author or authors for whom Khmer was a second language.


Catalog Number: K.370

Name: Stele of Ban Khămôi

Sources: C VII: 58-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Ban Khămôi is located in Ubon province, Thailand. It is shown on Aymonier, La Cambodge, II: map facing page 144, as ‘Ban Khmuoy’, lying some 50 kilometers northwest of the provincial seat on the Mae Nam Mun; a brief description of the village is given at loc. cit., 153-4, with a summary of the inscription, bearing 22 lines in a poor state of conservation.

Synopsis: A ruined Buddhist inscription, probably from the reign of Sūryavarman I, yielding little in the way of grammar.


Catalog Number: K.374

Name: Piédroit of Kămpˀêng Ñăi

Sources: C VI: 251-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka 964 = A.D. 1042)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Kămpˀêng Ñăi is an archeological site about 20 kilometers southwest of Sisaket. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 192, shows it on the river Samlanh near its confluence with the Me Nam Mun, and about 80 kilometers north of the Dangrek escarpment. This inscription is from the inner portal of the east gopura, and comprises some 35 lines in Khmer. Except as noted, all interpolations are by Cœdès.

Synopsis: This inscription records the pious work of a Śivadāsa in making an endowment to the High Lord of the World Śrī Vṛddheśvara on land he acquires next to Travāṅ Brāhmaṇa. The opening passage offers two instructive grammatical details, but the remainder of the text is routine, being taken up with an enumeration of slaves assigned to the land and to articles given for its purchase from 14 sellers. Lexical problems abound.


Catalog Number: K.376A

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Tà Mãn Thoṃ

Sources: C VII: 60-1, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka ix-x siècles = A.D. 878-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Tà Mãn Thoṃ is located in Ŭbŏn province, Thailand, on the crest of the Dangrêk escarpment Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 192, shows it about 50 kilometers south-southwest of Surin, while loc. cit., 189-90, describes the site and the stele, inscribed on two faces. Face A, which Cœdès (C VII: 60) takes to be the second, comprises 15 lines of which the last two are in Sanskrit; face B is ruined.

Synopsis: No coherent meaning can be drawn from these thirteen lines, but two namelists can be recognized with expository text between and after them.


Catalog Number: K.378

Name: Stele of Trapẵṅ Kramằl

Sources: C VII: 62, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Trapẵṅ Kramằl is located in Ubon province, Thailand, and is shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 192, as ‘Trepeang Kremal’, some 50 kilometers due southeast of Sisaket. It is described (loc. cit., 201) as a ‘grand bassin rectangulaire situé à quatre lieues au Nord de Phnom Krebas’, to the west of which a temple once stood. Found at the site is this 14-line inscription on a flat sandstone stele.

Synopsis: Another ruined inscription from which little can be extracted.


Catalog Number: K.380E/1°

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Vihãr

Sources: C VI: 257-70.

Śaka date: (Śaka 960 = A.D. 1038)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Práḥ Vihãr see № 55, note 2. This text of 28 lines is from the east piédroit of the south portal of gopura D. About two-thirds of the first line is in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This inscription records the establishment of an aspect of Śiva named the High Lord of the World Śrī Śikharīśvara as the chosen divinity of Sūryavarman I. The royal āśrama of five (?) sruk are ordered to join the divinity, while a royal directive requires the sruk residents as well as subjects elsewhere to subscribe to oaths of allegiance to Śrī Śikharīśvara. Because of lacunæ between lines 9 to 20 and a small number of inadvertences by the lapicide the text is challenging, though full of grammatical material of prime importance including a double negative in §10.


Catalog Number: K.380E/3°

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Vihãr

Sources: C VI: 257-70.

Śaka date: (Śaka 960 = A.D. 1038)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Práḥ Vihãr see № 55, note 2. This text of 13 lines is from the east piédroit of the south portal of gopura D.

Synopsis: This inscription is an appendage to № 60, from which it is separated by 27 lines in Sanskrit. It records an announcement to inmates of the five royal āśrama of the establishment of Śrī Śikharīśvara and a royal order for these inmates to pledge allegiance to the new divinity. From line 61 to the end, if my interpretation is correct, special concern is expressed to exclude members of the Pās Khmau league from the divinity’s favor. The text, presumably by the same hand as the previous inscription, is lacking in clarity and poses difficulties which remain unresolved.


Catalog Number: K.380W/2°

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Vihãr

Sources: C VI: 257-70.

Śaka date: (Śaka 959 = A.D. 1037)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Práḥ Vihãr see № 55, note 2. As Cœdès remarks (C VI: 257), K.380 comprises several distinct texts from the piédroits of the south portal of gopura D. These fall into four groups: (a) K.380WE, in Sanskrit; (b) K.380W/2°; (c) K.380E; and (d) K.380W/3°. This text, from the west piédroit, consists of 23 lines: 16 in Khmer, interrupted by 2½ in Sanskrit, followed by 5 more in Khmer.

Synopsis: This 28-line inscription records the grant by Sūryavarman I of sruk Vibheda to a kaṃsteṅ Śrī Sukarmā for his services as archivist during the building of two sanctuaries dedicated to the High Lords of the World Śrī Śikhareśvara and Śrī Vṛddheśvara. Well-ordered and clear, the text is an excellent source of grammatical detail.


Catalog Number: K.380W/3°

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Vihãr

Sources: C VI: 257-70.

Śaka date: (Śaka 960 = A.D. 1038)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Práḥ Vihãr see № 55, note 2. Like K.380W/2°, this text is from the west piédroit of the south portal of gopura D.

Synopsis: This text of 2½ lines is an appendage to № 58, dated a year and four months after the latter, and records a royal directive ordering a stele to be engraved and set up at the sanctuary of Śrī Śikhareśvara.


Catalog Number: K.380W/4°

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Vihãr

Sources: C VI: 257-70.

Śaka date: (Śaka 971 = A.D. 1049)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Práḥ Vihãr see № 55, note 2. Like K.380W/3°, this text of 4 lines is from the west piédroit of the south portal of gopura D.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.381

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Vihãr

Sources: C VI: 255-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 948 = A.D. 1028)

Conventional date: The “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 141) gives Śaka 946 as the date of this inscription, while line 7 gives Śaka 948.

Provenance: Práḥ Vihãr is located in the Dangrek chain 45 kilometers due west of the Laos frontier. This text of 21 lines is from the south piédroit of the west portal of gallery H. Uncharacteristically, it begins with 9 lines in Khmer, followed by 12 lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This inscription, despite a damaged beginning, appears to record the pious work of a vraḥ kamrateṅ ˀ Śrī Tapasvīndrapaṇḍita, including the founding of an āśrama and an endowment to the High Lord of the World Śrī Sikhareśvara. The grammar of lines 4-7 will be found to be challenging and hence instructive.


Catalog Number: K.382

Name: Stele of Práḥ Vihãr

Sources: C VI: 270-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka 969 = A.D. 1047)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Práḥ Vihãr see № 55, note 2. This text consists of 2 lines engraved around all four sides along the bottom of a stele found at the west portal of the sanctuary’s gallery H. The remainder of the stone is covered with 151 lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: Because of the lacunæ in the opening passage, the purpose of this inscription is unclear. Its condition in fact raises more than one instructive problem of interpretation.


Catalog Number: K.383

Name: Texte spécial à la stèle de Práḥ Vihãr

Sources: BEFEO, XLIII (1943-1946): 151-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1043 = A.D. 1121)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Práḥ Vihãr and particulars regarding the text, see my version of K.194 and K.383, “The Stelæ of Phnoṃ Sandak and Práḥ Vihãr,” notes 2 and 3. This text is a continuation of face B and consists of 35 lines set out in 7 columns. These continue on the two narrow faces of the stone: face c (7 lines) and face d (with two texts, one of 10 lines, the other of 13 lines).

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.388

Name: Hĭn Kˀôn Pillar

Sources: C VI: 74-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A,D, 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Cœdès (C VI: 74) locates Hĭn Kˀôn, the site of at least one ancient Buddhist sanctuary, some 40 kilometers south of Khorat in the district of Pǎk Thˀong Cˀǎi. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: map facing page 112 shows it on the left bank of the Me Nam Mun, 39 kilometers due south of Khorat. Two pillars delimiting the precincts bear inscriptions in pre-Angkorian Khmer. Of these, K.388 is engraved on all four faces of a rectangular pillar 1 meter high, o.40 meter wide on two faces and o.30 wide on the other two faces. Face A has 12 lines in Sanskrit; face B 8 lines in Sanskrit and 11 lines in Khmer; face C 19 lines in Khmer; face D 18 lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: Two faces of this pillar inscription record gifts to Śrī Vṛddheśvara made by a royal monk named Nṛpendrādhipativarman. They include small articles, an areca palm plantation, riceland, cattle, an elephant, and slaves, all to be shared with Śrī Vṛddheśvara. This is a challenging text of major grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.389

Name: Hĭn Kˀôn Pillar

Sources: C VI: 78.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Hin Kˀôn see № 65, note 2. This inscription is engraved on three faces of a rectangular pillar o.80 meter high, 0.32 meter on two faces, o.21 on the two other faces. Face A, widest of the three, contains 13 lines in Sanskrit which are barely legible; face B has 18 lines in Khmer, mostly legible; face C has 12¼ lines in Khmer followed by 2¾ lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This ruined inscription appears to record other pious works of the rājabhikṣu figuring in № 65. From it little of grammatical interest can be gleaned.


Catalog Number: K.391

Name: Piédroits of Nŏm Văn

Sources: Aymonier, II: 111-2; C VI: 297-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1004 = A.D. 1082)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Nŏm Văn see № 77, note 2. The piédroits of the south inner portal of the central tower bear inscriptions in Khmer, the west piédroit 42 lines, the east piédroit only 3 lines. A connection between the two is not discernible.

Synopsis: This inscription records a royal order from Jayavarman VI to My Holy High Lord Lakṣmīndravarman, his brother (or cousin) Bhūpendravarman and a list of associates for the maintenance of an unidentified Devāśrama, including periodic allowances and slaves.


Catalog Number: K.393

Name: Piédroits of Nom Văn

Sources: C VII: 63-70.

Śaka date: (Śaka 977? = A.D. 1055?)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Nom Văn is a sanctuary located about 10 kilometers northeast of Khorat. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: 110-3, his description (4°, pages 110-1), and his map facing page 112, showing the site on the left bank of the Me Nam Mun. This inscription is from the south and north piédroits of the east outer portal of the central sanctuary. The south piédroit bears 2 lines in Khmer, 25½ in Sanskrit, 17½ in Khmer; the north piédroit bears 19 additional lines in Khmer. ‘Son style,’ says Cœdès of the Khmer text (C VII: 64), ‘est en effet assez différent de celui des autres inscriptions khmères de la même époque. Il s’en distingue notamment par la surabondance de mots sanskrits qui, loin d’éclairer la signification du texte, tendrait plutôt à l’obscurcir. Dans l’impossibilité où je me trouve d’en donner une traduction littérale, je me bornerai à résumer, pour chaque paragraphe, le sens probable qui s’en dégage, … ‘. We may be sure that his reading of the estampages, such as they were, measured up to his standard of exactitude.

Synopsis: This impenetrable oddity is included here because Cœdès (C VII: 63) held that it is the most important of the five inscriptions recovered from Nom Văn. To exclude it would be to ignore the pains he took with it while working from estampages of inferior quality. As will be seen, the result could not have been intelligible to readers of typical literacy. What follows is Cœdès’s text without translation


Catalog Number: K.397E/2°

Name: Piédroit of Pˀimai

Sources: BEFEO, XXIV (1924): 345-52; APK I: 81-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1034 = A.D. 1112)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pˀimai (Phimai) II, № 65, note 2. These two lines are at the bottom of the east piédroit of the south gopura of the first enceinte.

Synopsis: These two lines record the offering of a female to the service of the High Lord of the World of Vimāya, mentioned in K.397E/1°: 2.


Catalog Number: K.397E/I°

Name: Piédroit of Pˀimai

Sources: BEFEO, XXIV (1924).3-4: 345; APK I: 85.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1031 = A.D. 1109)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pˀimay (Phimai) see II, № 65, note 2. This inscription of 23 lines is from the east piédroit of the south gopura of the first enceinte.

Synopsis: This inscription records the installation of a High Lord of the World named the General Trailokyavijaya by a Śrī Vīrendrādhipativarman, who offers up to it slaves, two tracts of land, and a daily allowance of rice in addition to carrying out other pious works. Associated with the donor is a Śrī Vīravarman (line 18 sq.), who offers up additional slaves to the divinity. The text is well written, clear, and a good example of the grammar of the period.


Catalog Number: K.400B

Name: Stele of Bô Ika

Sources: C VI: 83-5; JA, 1958: 127.

Śaka date: (Śaka 750 = A.D. 828)

Conventional date: Cœdès (C III: 84, VIII: 145) gives Śaka 790 = A.D. 868; M. Claude Jacques reads Śaka 750 (A.D. 828).

Provenance: Bô Ika is the name of the terrace or pavement on the north side of Old Korat. The red sandstone stele found at the site, broken in two but measuring 1.10 x 0.56 x 0.25 meters, bears on face A an inscription of 4 lines in Sanskrit, on face B an inscription of 12 lines in Sanskrit and 5 lines in Khmer. The stele emanates from a kingdom identified as Śrī Cānāśa, on the confines of the Khmer realm.

Synopsis: Chance alone ordains that the earliest dated Angkorian inscription should consist of no more than one short sentence and a list of names.


Catalog Number: K.405

Name: Văt Pră Kêo Pillar

Sources: C VI: 321.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1238 = A.D. 1316)

Conventional date:

Provenance: To quote Cœdès, Văt Pră Kêo is the sanctuary of the ‘Emerald Buddha’ in the royal palace compound in Bangkok. The 3-meter pillar at its entrance is of unknown provenance. This 4-line inscription is from one of its upper surfaces. Characterizing the short text is the replacement of usual v by b: nabamī (navamī), baiśākha (vaiśākha), śukrabāra (śukravāra), byar (vyar).

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.410/1°

Name: Stele of Sāl Sūṅ

Sources: RS, II, № XIX: 10-2.

Śaka date: (Śaka 944 = A.D. 1022)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The Sāl Sūṅ is a śāla in Lopburi, Ayutthaya province, Thailand, which appears as Cœdès says to have served as a depot for inscriptions in the late 19th century. Where this stele originally came from is long forgotten. The hard blackish stone measures 1.30 x o.30 meters, while one of its faces bears an inscription of 29 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: The object of this 17-line inscription, which must have been set up at the entrance into an unidentified tapovana, is to protect its denizens from disturbance by the general public.


Catalog Number: K.410/2°

Name: Stele of Sāl Sūṅ

Sources: RS, II, № XIX: 10-2.

Śaka date: (Śaka 947 = A.D. 1025)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Sāl Sūṅ see № 44, note 2.

Synopsis: Two inscriptions, the first of 8 lines, the second of 4. No coherent sense can be made of them.


Catalog Number: K.412

Name: Stele of the San Čău of Lŏp’bŭri

Sources: RS II (Deuxième édition revue et mise à jour), № XXI: 16-8; hereafter Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This inscription was found by Aymonier (Le Cambodge, II: 82-3) in a san chao or ‘petit édicule chinois élevé aux génies locaux’ in Lopburi, the ancient Lavo, about 100 kilometers due north of Bangkok. It is borne on one face of a sandstone block the top part of which is missing, and consists of 27 lines in Khmer. For Cœdès’s dot (.) I have substituted my □.

Synopsis: This short inscription records gifts made by a donor whose name is obliterated to Śrī Paramavāsudeva: the harvest of a ricefield, a dancer, a singer, two instrumentalists, paddy, an allowance of milled rice, two gardens, small articles, slaves, and cattle.


Catalog Number: K.413

Name: The Brai Svāy Inscription

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Documents sur la dynastie de Sukhodaya,” in BEFEO. XVII (1917).2: 1-47 (hereafter Cœdès (1917)); G. Cœdès, “Inscription khmère du Bois des manguiers,” in RS I (1924), IV: 91-102 (hereafter Cœdès (1924)); A.B. Griswold and Prasert ṇa Nagara, “Epigraphic and Historical Studies No. 11 Part I: The Epigraphy of Mahādharmarājā I of Sukhodaya,” in JSS, 61.1 (January 1973): esp. 132-44 (hereafter G&P); Saveros Pou, “Inscription dite de Brai Svāy ou « Bois des Manguiers » de Sukhoday,” in BEFEO, LXV (1978): 333-59 (hereafter Pou).

Śaka date: (Śaka 1283 = A.D. 1361)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The Brai Svāy or ‘mango wood’ was a grove west of Sukhodaya and the site of the Devālayamahākṣetra, housing images of Śiva and Viṣṇu. The sandstone stele bearing this inscription was recovered in Sukhoday as early as 1834. The involved history of its interpretation, which need not be repeated here, is chronicled in Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: 83-100, Cœdès (1917): 1-10, and G&P, 127-30. Suffice it to say that its 184 lines (56 lines on faces A, B and C, 16 lines on face D) show the ravages of time on a stone of inferior quality. Roughly half of face A is legible, nearly all of face B is legible, but face C is entirely ruined while face D is only partly legible.

Synopsis: This is the last of the great dated inscriptions of the period. It is a mixed account of the accession and accomplishments of Ḷdaiya, opening with his capture of Sukhodaya, moving on through his consecration as king (A.D. 1347) and his intellectual attainments and piety, to his ordination as a novice by a Mahāsāmi Saṅgharāja invited from Ceylon (A.D. 1361). Despite numerous lacunæ the text is of special interest to the grammarian for the quality of its exposition and because the wording here and there betrays an author to whom Khmer must have been a second language. My version is top-heavy with footnotes because the reader should know the interpretations of my three predecessors.


Catalog Number: K.414

Name: Fragment from Sabāp

Sources: Lucien Fournereau, Le Siam ancien : Archéologie, épigraphie, géographie [in two volumes]. Annales du Musée Guimet, 27 et 31: 2 (Paris: 1895-1908), № II, 137-41.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe-xe siècles = A.D. 878-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Sabāp is a 900-meter hill in Pračinbŭri province, Thailand, described as located 9 miles northeast of the mouth of the river Chantabun. This 8-line fragment, inscribed on a pentagonal column, was discovered in a temple at the foot of the hill. It comprises 3 lines in Sanskrit and 5 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.415

Name: Musée de Brest Inscription

Sources: C V: 86-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 799 = A.D. 877)

Conventional date: This date is the first year of the reign of Indravarman I (Īśvaraloka), regarding whom the reader may consult Les États hindouisés, 205 sq. (English edition, 110 sq.). This notwithstanding, ‘son écriture présente toutes les caractéristiques de l’époque préangkorienne et ne comporte encore aucun de ces fleurons qui prirent peu à peu un grand développement à l’époque angkorienne.’

Provenance: The provenance of K.415, as Cœdès states, is unknown but it was eventually consigned to the Musée de Brest. A note by Claude Jacques to the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 146) marks it as disparu.

Synopsis: This short inscription records gifts to Śrī Vindhyeśvara by a lord Vaidyaśiva. The gifts consist of costly articles, servitors and female slaves.


Catalog Number: K.416

Name: Kŏṃpoṅ Spư Fragments

Sources: C II: 47.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: As Cœdès states (loc.cit.), the origin of these two sandstone fragments is unknown apart from the fact that they were found by the provincial Resident of Kompong Speu. The first fragment comprises 7 lines, the second 5. All interpolations are by Cœdès.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.418

Name: Núi Cam Plates

Sources: L. Finot, “Notes d’épigraphie. IX. – Les plateaux de Núi Cam,” in BEFEO, IV (1904).3: 676-8; George Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes. XXIV. – Nouvelles données chronologiques et généalogiques sur la dynastie de Mahīdharapura,” in BEFEO, XXIX (1929): 297-330, esp. 305-6. The latter is reprinted in APK I: 169-202.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1088 = A.D. 1166)

Conventional date:

Provenance: These texts are inscribed on two silver plates found in a cave located somewhere in the Núi Cam hills of Chau Doc province. A detailed description of the plates is given by Finot, loc.cit., 676-7.

Synopsis: Two short inscriptions, evidently related. The second is the first record of Tribhuvanādityavarman. Both offer a lesson in the unmarked case-relation between head and attribute and pose the conundrum of Kālaparvata and Liṅgaparvata.


Catalog Number: K.420

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Daṃṇằk

Sources: C IV: 161-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date: The inscription appears to date from the reign of Sūryavarman I (A.D. 1001-1050).

Provenance: Vằt Daṃṇằk is located on the left bank of the Siem Reap river within the provincial seat. Kept at the site is a piédroit of unknown provenance, probably from a monument in Aṅkor Thoṃ; it bears an inscription of 48 lines in Khmer which continues an inscription begun on a companion piédroit which has not been recovered.

Synopsis: This inscription records the acquisition of 18 tracts of land including sruk and settlements by a Śrī Vīrendravarman the younger, who appears to speak of himself in the third person. Associated with him are a number of others, all presumed to be kinsmen. Ten of the acquisitions enumerated are direct purchases by Śrī Vīrendravarman himself; 3 of these are by a My Holy High Lord at Vrac, who lends the goods paid for 5 of Śrī Vīrendravarman’s purchases. Two more 2 acquisitions are by kinsmen or ancestors; 2 others are by gift to Śrī Vīrendravarman the elder, while 1 acquisition is by royal gift from Sūryavarman I. In 2 cases the purchase price is paid not to the seller but to a High Lord of the World at Śrī Vardhamāna. Despite the fact that its first half is missing, what remains of the inscription is clear as to purpose and is an excellent source of grammatical data. A detail of special interest, for example, is that it shows clearly the development of thlai from noun to preposition.


Catalog Number: K.421

Name: Inscription of Tháp Mữợi

Sources: C V: 272-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka 8th century = A.D. 802-877)

Conventional date: Aymonier, op.cit., 141, assigned this text to the first half of the 7th century (presumably of the Śaka era); this was accepted by Cœdès in the “Liste générale des inscriptions du Cambodge” (C VIII: 149): Śaka 678-777. He states (C V: 272) that “La pierre schisteuse est gravée de 18 lignes de caractères aux traits fins, très cursifs et très difficiles à déchiffrer, auxquels il est malaisé d’assigner une date.” The orthography of the text, however, is clearly Angkorian: chdiṅ (lines 1, 4, 6, 8), ˀantvaṅ (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17), chvek (1, 6), thkval (10, 12), lamlyat (10), and khtār (1, 15). On this basis I assign it to the next century.

Provenance: Tháp Mữợi is a small eminence in the immense Plaine des Joncs in Sadec province, southern Vietnam, on which stand the ruins of an ancient Khmer sanctuary known as Prasat Pram Loveng. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 136, which locates it about 96 kilometers due west-southwest of Saigon.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.422

Name: Čẵn Čŭṃ Fragment

Sources: C II: 9.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Čẵn Čŭṃ is a site near the modern temple of Vằt Pôthivoṅ Lơ in the sruk of Trẵṅ, Tà Kèv province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 160, shows a ‘Preah Bat Chêâm Chum’ lying 45 kilometers due south by east of the provincial capital, 25 kilometers due southwest of Chau Doc. This fragment, apparently engraved on a schist piédroit, consists of 4 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.423

Name: Trapẵṅ Thoṃ Stone

Sources: C II: 135-6; AIC I: 178-80.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The slab of whitish marble on which this inscription was engraved was found in a Chinese temple in the village of Trapẵṅ Thoṃ, Kompot province. Each of the two faces of the stone has 4 lines of text in Khmer.

Synopsis: The first face of this short inscriptions records gifts to an aspect of Śiva: slaves, cattle, palms, and paddy. The second face records slaves and palms given to Kumāra. The condition of the text, ruling out definitive translation, poses several problems which are worth confronting.


Catalog Number: K.424

Name: Phnoṃ Mráḥ Prou Fragment

Sources: C II: 73-4; AIC, I: 181-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Mráḥ Prou is a hill in the khum of Mohà Lampaṅ, sruk of Phnoṃ Sruoč, Kompong Speu province, on the summit of which are the ruins of a small temple. I fail to find the site on modern maps, but it must be about 60 kilometers southwest of Phnom-Penh. Found on the site is a stone measuring o.50 x o.23 x o.105 meter bearing on each of its two faces 9 lines in text in Khmer. The ruinous condition of the inscription precludes coherent translation.

Synopsis: In their present condition the chief interest of these scraps is the mention of a divinity named Śrī Tuṅgīśa in A: 2 and B: 1.


Catalog Number: K.425

Name: Stele of Bàsak

Sources: C II: 142-4; AIC, I: 595-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 890 = A.D. 968)

Conventional date: The reading of this date is uncertain. See C II: 142, note 7.

Provenance: Basak is located in the khaṇḍ of Roṃduol, Svay Rieng province, about 32 kilometers west-southwest of Tay Ninh. The sandstone stele found on this site bears on one of its faces a Khmer inscription of 26 lines, apparently unfinished. For the associations of Bàsak with Vak Ek and ancient Vyādhapura see Cœdès’s discussion at C II: 142.

Synopsis: This inscription records a royal directive assigning the sruk of Thkvāl Joṅ to the High Lord of the World at Vak Ek. Even without lacunæ which replace more than one word of critical importance, the text lacks the clarity and logical progression of most of its kind and its cannot be said to be a good example of the language of the period.


Catalog Number: K.426

Name: Stele of Vằt Čơṅ Èk

Sources: C II: 121-2; AIC, I: 186-8, IV: 50.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Čơn Èk is a modern temple located a short distance south of Phnom-Penh in Kandàl province. A small sandstone stele found on the premises bears an inscription of 9 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription, legible in its entirety, records a royal order concerning the divinity at the Siddhāyatana at Cuṅ Muḥ and the sharing of property assigned to him with Śrī Acaleśvara. The short text ends with a detailed admonition to persons who desecrate the sanctuary.


Catalog Number: K.427

Name: Piédroit of Tûol Práḥ Thãt

Sources: C VI: 43, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: On Tûol Práḥ Thãt see № 55, note 2. This inscription of 10 lines in Khmer is engraved on an ancient piédroit of which the right side is broken off, leaving each line incomplete.

Synopsis: The condition of this short inscription is such that it can only be described as a list of names of clerical figures, followed by the names of a few slaves and a few items of a gift. The chief interest of the text is onomastic and lexical.


Catalog Number: K.430

Name: Fragment of Phnoṃ Prơs

Sources: C VI: 44.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Prơs, known also as Phnoṃ Saṃbŏk, is located in Kratié province; I fail to find it on modern maps. The stone bearing this inscription is not described by Cœdès, who notes that its beginning is missing. The text on its right side is also missing or illegible.

Synopsis: Another inscription too short and ruinous to have more than onomastic interest.


Catalog Number: K.438

Name: Inscription of Sambór Prei Kŭk

Sources: C IV: 25-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Sambór Prei Kŭk see № 63, note 2. This inscription of 21 lines is from the south piédroit of tower N16 and consists of 10 lines in Sanskrit followed by 11 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This brief inscription records gifts by a lord Durgasvāmin to a divinity whose name is illegible and to a Śrī Prahasiteśvara mentioned in line 19. Little or no sense can be extracted from lines 12 to 16 because of lacunæ, but those parts of the text which are comprehensible contain useful grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.444, K.868, K.175

Name: Composite Text

Sources: C II: 62-8 (K.444); C VI: 170-2 (K.868); C VI: 173-80 (K.175WS).

Śaka date: (Śaka 896 = A.D. 974)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This is a composite text reconciling inscriptions known respectively as the Stele of Koṃpoṅ Thoṃ, the Stele of Tûol Daṅ Khčàs, and the Stele of Kôk Rosei. K.444 is a block of sandstone (0.536 meter high x 0.27 wide x 0.07 thick), found in 1900 at the French Résidence in Kompong Thom by Lunet de Lajonquière; it consists of 101 lines. K.868 is a block (0.75 meter high x 0.35 wide) found in 1930 (C II: 62) or 1936 by H. Mauger or Henri Marchal (C VI: 170) somewhere in the three sanctuaries of Tûol Daṅ Khčàs in Sisophon province; it consists of 39 lines. By 1942 it was recognized both that K.868 was the same text as K.444, with minor differences, and that these two texts were duplicated by an appendage to K.175, namely K.175W: 16-8 and the whole of K.175S. This third stone had been rediscovered some time in the late 1890’s by Aymonier at Kôk Rosei in Siem Reap province, a short distance east of Phnom Kulen. It is a block of red sandstone 0.60 meter high, 0.53 wide, and 0.31 thick; its ruinous condition makes it impossible to state its total number of lines or their disposition on its four faces. K.444 and K.868 bear the same date: Śaka 896 (A.D. 974), while the relevant part of K.175 is dated Śaka 90x, making it from five to thirteen years later. The three texts being essentially the same, I use the earlier date. Of K.444 Cœdès states (C II: 63): ‘Sans le secours de l’inscription de Kôk Rosei, assez bien conservée vers le milieu, et surtout de celle de Tûol Daṅ Khčàs, qui est intacte, la lecture de la stèle de Koṃpoṅ Thoṃ, mal écrite et passablement usée, serait très lacunaire. Dans la transcription qui suit, les passages restitués à l’aide de ces deux textes sont entre crochets. On est ainsi en mesure de donner de ce remarquable document une traduction complète’. I take this to mean that he had been at pains to develop the full text of K.444, without including parts of K.868 and K.175 which are unique to those inscriptions. Since our purpose is grammatical description, I dispense with epigraphic details including Cœdès’s brackets and italics. My line numbers are those of K.444.

Synopsis: This inscription is doubly composite in that I have added relevant parts of K.175S to Cœdès’s composite text of K.444 and K.868. The editorial effort involved has been amply rewarded. The resulting text is an exceptionally full specimen of Angkorian Khmer, illustrative of the narrative style at its best and reflecting the growing ability of authors to make the most of the grammatical resources of the language. The inscription records two royal directives from Jayavarman V: one ordering a sacrifice to Sarasvatī marking the completion of his studies, the other ordering the introduction of changes in the organization of the khmuk of the holy chamber of worship and of the Karmāntara order. The bulk of the text is taken up with the new provisions.


Catalog Number: K.447

Name: Stele of Bàsĕt

Sources: C II: 193-5; AIC I: 189-93, IV: 51.

Śaka date: (Śaka 57x = A.D. 648/57)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Wednesday, 14 June, A.D. 657, approximately 08:09 hours, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 4).

Provenance: The ruins of Bàsĕt lie about 12 kilometers due east-northeast of Batdambang in the province of the same name. Its location is shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 304. For a description of the site see op.cit., 292 sq. The sandstone stele in question measures 1.52 x o.49 x o.10 meters and was found in Vằt Pô Vãl in Batdambang town, and is said on good authority to have been brought from Bàsĕt. This inscription comprises 27 lines, the first 22 in Sanskrit followed by 5 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This five-line text, probably dating from the reign of Jayavarman I, records the gift of six slaves and two ricefields by an ācārya Dharmapāla, a Vaiṣṇavite bhāgavata of the Pāñcarātra sect. We learn from the Sanskrit text that these are given to an aspect of Viṣṇu called Śrī Acyuta (‘the imperishable’).


Catalog Number: K.449

Name: Stele of Pàlhàl

Sources: BEFEO, XIII.6: 1-36; APK I: 43-52; AIC, II: 911-24, 1052-62.

Śaka date: (Śaka 991 = A.D. 1069)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Cœdès places the village of Pàlhàl 20 kilometers south of Svāy Dón Kèv, corresponding to the ‘Svay Daun Kéo’ shown by Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 304, on the right bank of the ‘Prek Kampong Prak’ 85 kilometers southeast of Batdambang. The “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 152) situates it in Batdambang province, probably the sruk of Mong Russey, while the distance would seem to place it in sruk Bakan, Pursat province. The stele found in the village bears an inscription on two faces: face A bears 2 lines in Khmer followed by 36 lines in Sanskrit; face B bears 25 more lines in Sanskrit, followed by 7 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: Enigmatic when separated from its Sanskrit counterpart, which is of the utmost historical interest, this inscription records the setting up of a Śrī Tribhuvaneśvara by one Nārāyaṇa, headman of Garyāk, with two others. The nearly unflawed text includes (lines 26-8) an admonition or imprecation of novel form, instructions for the inheritance of the property, and two short slavelists.


Catalog Number: K.450

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Khtom

Sources: C III: 109-15; AIC, III: 1374-81.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date: The text dates from the reign of Sūryavarman I (A.D. 1001-1050).

Provenance: Pràsàt Khtom consists of three towers located in Banteay Mean Chey province some 26 kilometers due north of Sisophon and 5 kilometers north of Svay Chek. This inscription, from one of the portals of the central sanctuary, consists of 31 lines in Khmer with one interlinear line, followed by 11 lines in Sanskrit. It was preceded by a text on another piédroit, since lost.

Synopsis: The first 10 lines of this delightul inscription list temple treasures and slaves offered to three divinities by a Śrī Rājendrapaṇḍita, head of the Maṅgalārtha, after which are given details of his career, a royal benefice and certain exemptions granted him by Sūryavarman I, and particulars regarding the preservation of the foundation. For the grammarian this is another challenging text which will repay close study, and introduces a sense of teṃ not previously recognized.


Catalog Number: K.451

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Prei Thnăl (Sud)

Sources: C V: 49-52.

Śaka date: (Śaka 602 = A.D. 680)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Thursday, 17 May, or the next day, A.D. 680, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 5); the roc in line 1 is to be read ket.

Provenance: Pràsàt Prei Thnăl (Sud) is a pre-Angkorian brick tower which Cœdès (C V: 49) locates in the sruk of Pûok, Siem Reap province, on the left bank of the Stưṅ Plằṅ near the phum of Khloṅ, which I fail to find on my maps. It lies about 20 kilometers west-northwest of Siem Reap town. The piédroits of this sanctuary bear an inscription of 29 lines in Khmer, 16 lines on the south piédroit, 13 lines on the north.

Synopsis: This is another challenging inscription of major grammatical interest. It records gifts made by a prince of Maleṅ to Śrī Kedareśvara: slaves, livestock, a plantation, and riceland, all itemized on the south piédroit. On the north piédroit we have a striking example of a malediction on those who do injury to the divinity and a benediction on those who render aid to the divinity. The endowment also provides material goods for the rainy season, a few more slaves, and rice for offerings on holy days. Despite the several minor problems it raises, the text is of special interest in illustrating the growing expressive power of epigraphic Khmer in the late 7th century. From the point of view of linguistics it contains useful specimens of syntax and is a valuable source of lexical and onomastic data.


Catalog Number: K.457

Name: Inscription of Phnoṃ Dĕi

Sources: BEFEO, XVIII (1918).9: 13-4; APK I: 65.

Śaka date: (Śaka 815 = A.D. 893)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Dĕi, known anciently as Śrī Purandaraparvata, lies some distance west by south of Sisophon in Batdambang province; Cœdès (loc.cit., 13) gives its approximate location from the meridian of Paris. At the summit of the hill stands the prāsāda of the same name, dedicated to the worship of Harihara — a small, square edifice of brick, oriented on the east. The north piédroit of the portal bears an inscription which has been mutilated. On the south piédroit is an inscription of 12 lines, the first 4 in Sanskrit, the remaining 8 in Khmer.

Synopsis: This brief inscription records an order from Yaśovarman for the installation of boundary-markers on a tract of land to be dedicated to an image of Śaṃkaranārāyaṇa on Śrī Purandaraparvata.


Catalog Number: K.460

Name: Piédroits of Tà Som

Sources: Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jaya-varman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 116, untranslated; APK I : 343-65. All interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.462

Name: Piédroits of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 107-14, untranslated, hereafter Cœdès; APK I : 343-65. Except as noted, all interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.464 and K.558

Name: Inscriptions of Phnoṃ Bàkheṅ

Sources: BEFEO, XI (1911).3-4: 396, LVII (1970): 57.

Śaka date: (Śaka 890 = A.D. 968)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Part of the Angkor group in Siem Reap province, the sanctuary of Phnoṃ Bàkheṅ, the ancient Yaśodhareśvara, is located in the heart of ancient Yaśodharapura. K.464 is from the east piédroit of the north portal, K.558 from the northeast corner of the upper tier. The main text of the two inscriptions is the same but, their legibility differing somewhat, they have been critically edited by Claude Jacques in BEFEO, LVII (1970): 57-67. The purpose here being grammatical description rather than epigraphic exactitude, I have eliminated his critical aparatus.

Synopsis: This inscription reports a royal directive from Jayavarman V ordering a copy, for the use of the clerical staff, of the inventory of slaves assigned by Yaśovarman to the sanctuary of Śrī Yaśodhareśvara. This is a composite text by M. Claude Jacques which first reconciles K.484 and K.558 as published earlier, then includes the hitherto unpublished slavelists from each. The condition of the second slavelist makes any rendering pointless.


Catalog Number: K.467

Name: The Oath of Allegiance to Sūryavarman I

Sources: C III: 217-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 933 = A.D. 1011)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This 29-line text is from the north piédroit of the west portal of the south Pràsàt Khlẵṅ, one of two large buildings on the east side of the royal square in Angkor Thom. The first 11 lines give the oath of allegiance proper (№ 30), while lines 12 to 29 are taken up with the names of 56 signatories, as in № 31. Owing to lacunæ in line 1, it cannot be known for certain whether these signatories were tamrvāc or whether the oath was in fact administered in A.D. 1011. C III: 217, note 7, remarks that two lines were inadvertently dropped from the oath in this text: in the first case, the words len´ phala ˀnak ta svāmibhakti mān ta yeṅ daha (line 13 of № 30); in the second case, the words ta dhuli vraḥ pada kamrateṅ kaṃtvan ˀañ śrī sūryyavarmmadeva ta (lines 25-6 of № 30). ‘Dans les deux cas, il doit s’agir de négligence de la part du graveur qui a sauté chaque fois une ligne de sa minute’.

Synopsis: A final list of signatories to the oath of allegiance given in № 30.


Catalog Number: K.468N

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Khlẵṅ (North)

Sources: C III: 227-8, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Khlẵṅ see the pre-Angkorian volume, № 118, note 2, or II, № 32, note 2. This inscription is on the north piédroit of the north portal opening on the east façade of the North Khlẵṅ, and may be a continuation of K.468S in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: It may be useful to sacrifice this ruined inscription in order to illustrate the possibilities (and dangers) of interpolation. No great harm can be done, as the text may easily be returned to its original form by eliminating my proposals.


Catalog Number: K.470

Name: Piédroit from the Bàyon

Sources: C II: 187-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1249 = A.D. 1327)

Conventional date: Cf. C II: 187, note liminaire and note 2.

Provenance: This detached sandstone piédroit was found in 1912 about 25 meters from the north-east corner of the outer gallery of the Bàyon, the monument located at the very center of Angkor Thom. It bears an inscription of 27 lines.

Synopsis: This inscription records first the installation of a śivaliṅga and six categories of gifts made to it, then an order by Jayavarmādiparameśvara for the assignment of the sruk of Cāmpa to an unnamed brāhmaṇa, then finally lists of thirteen slaves (dāsa) assigned to special duties. Lines 16-23 exemplify the legal style of the period but are more troublesome than instructive.


Catalog Number: K.475

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Phˀu

Sources: Louis Finot, “Notes d’épigraphie. XVII. –Piédroit de Vat Phu,” in BEFEO, XVII (1915).2: 107.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1058 = A.D. 1136)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Phˀu see K.720 (A.D. 1006), note 2. This 7-line text is from the lower part of one of two piédroits recovered in 1911 by Henri Parmentier.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.482

Name: Inscription of Kôk Rokà

Sources: C V: 28-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Despite uncertainties regarding its provenance, this inscription appears to have come from the Saṃbór Prei Kŭk region of Kŏṃpoṅ Thoṃ province. It consists of 20 lines, the first 8 in Sanskrit, the remainder in Khmer; of the latter only line 9 is legible, lines 10 to 20 consisting of a slavelist.

Synopsis: This single line contains nothing not already addressed.


Catalog Number: K.484

Name:

Sources:

Śaka date:

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.484B

Name: Stele of the Phĭmãnàkàs

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes. XIV. – Une nouvelle inscription du Phĭmãnàkàs,” in BEFEO, XVIII (1918).9 : 9-12 ; Saveros Lewitz, “L’inscription de Phimeanakas (K.484) (Étude linguistique),” in BEFEO, LVIII (1971) : 91-103.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of the Phĭmãnàkàs see I, № 11, note 2. Recovered from the site in 1916 was a small sandstone stele 45 centimeters high, 28 centimeters wide, 10 centimeters thick. Face A bears a 6-line inscription in Sanskrit, face B an 11-line inscription in Khmer.

Synopsis: As out of the ordinary as № 23 is the Khmer form of this prayer, a concrete example of Hindu-Buddhist syncretism. The excellence of its composition raises the question of which version is the original, the Sanskrit or the Khmer. Lines 1-5 comprise nine invocations to the Bodhi tree; lines 5-7 express six hopes for its preservation; lines 8-11 ask for deliverance from various evils. Short as it is, the texts offers good grammatical material.


Catalog Number: K.493

Name: Inscription of Tûol Kôk Práḥ

Sources: C II: 149-52; unpublished manuscript by M. Claude Jacques, 148-61; AIC I: 199-204, IV: 54. The Sanskrit text was published by Finot in BEFEO, XVIII (1918).10: 15.

Śaka date: (Śaka 579 = A.D. 657)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence of the date given in lines 11 and 12 of the Sanskrit text is Wednesday, 14 June 657, approximately 08:09 hours, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 4), which is the same as that for K.447.

Provenance: As Cœdès states (C II: 149), this inscription was found in 1918 in a ricefield east of a Tûol Kôk Práḥ, in the khum of Kǒmpoṅ Rưsĕi, Prei Vêṅ province. The text is incised on a slab of what appears to be schist measuring 1.40 x o.58 meters, probably an ancient piédroit, and comprises 31 lines: the first 18 in Sanskrit, the remaining 12 in Khmer. The Khmer text may have been continued on a second piédroit not found.

Synopsis: The Sanskrit portion of this inscription records the setting up of an image of Āmrātakeśvara by one Jñānacandra, counsellor to Jayavarman I. The Khmer portion of the text enumerates thirteen transactions by which Jñānacandra acquires ricelands for the divinity’s support: in ten cases by gift, in three cases by payment of debts. Co-beneficiaries of these fields are a vraḥ kanmeṅ (line 22), a vraḥ kamratāñ cas (lines 25, 27), a vraḥ maṇi (lines 27, 31), and the vraḥ kamratāñ śrī rudramahālaya (line 25) mentioned previously in № 12, line 11.


Catalog Number: K.502

Name: Inscription of Chantaburi

Sources: BEFEO, XXIV (1924): 352-8; new reading by M. Claude Jacques.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 158) indicates that this text was found in Prachinburi province, whereas Cœdès’s description indicates that it is from Chantaburi. The text was put together from two fragments. The first, an irregular piece of sandstone, was found in 1919 in monks’ quarters 4 kilometers southeast of Chantaburi; this bears the remains of 8 lines in Khmer. The second was found at the foot of a banyan behind a temple 1,500 meters south-southeast of Thong Thuầ on the south bank of the khloṅ Săbãp; this bears the remains of 16 lines: the first 1½ in Khmer, 1½ lines in Sanskrit, and 13 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription records slaves, cattle, riceland, and a plantation given to an unnamed divinity by a lord Anaṅga. Its condition, particularly from line 9 to 16, does not lend itself to grammatical description or coherent translation.


Catalog Number: K.504

Name: Inscription du Buddha de Văt Huă Vieṅ

Sources: BEFEO, XVIII (1918).6: 33; RS II, № 25: 29-31.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1105 = A.D. 1183)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This 5-line text in Khmer is from the front of the rectangular base of a bronze image of the Buddha found in the vicinity of Chaiya, Surat Thani, Thailand.

Synopsis: Short as it is, this instructive inscription is of major historical significance and offers valuable exercise for the grammarian.


Catalog Number: K.505

Name: Inscription of Khău Răng

Sources: C V: 23-4; VS, 86-92.

Śaka date: (Śaka 561 = A.D. 639)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence 18:53 hours, Friday, 1 October, A.D. 939, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 3).

Provenance: Khău Răng is one of three hills situated in Sakaew province, Thailand, probably a short distance to the northeast of Aranya Prathet. This inscription of 31 lines, on a stone barely o.30 meter wide, comprises 2 lines in Sanskrit followed by 29 lines in Khmer. Cœdès (C V: 23) remarks that it appears to date from the last years of the reign of Īśānavarman or the early years of Bhavavarman II. My notes hereafter are not intended to challenge Vong Sotheara’s readings but to point up the difficulties the text poses.

Synopsis: This text records gifts to an unnamed vihāra of slaves, plantations, articles of daily use, riceland, and water buffaloes. Donors are an ascetic apparently named Pragat, a poñ whose name is illegible (line 25), and a poñ mentioned in line 29.


Catalog Number: K.506

Name: Piédroit of Khău Nôi

Sources: NIC, II/III: 180-1. Cf. C V: 23.

Śaka date: (Śaka 559 = A.D. 637)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Wednesday (or the next day), 7 May, A.D. 637, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 3).

Provenance: Khău Nôi is one of three hills situated in Sakaew province, Thailand, probably a short distance northeast of Aranya Prathet. This inscription, from a piédroit found on the hill, is known only from an estampage on deposit in the National Library in Bangkok. Cœdès (C V: 23, note liminaire) reports that it consists of 9 lines in Sanskrit followed by 26 lines in Khmer; he gives two lines of the Sanskrit. In the treatment of lacunæ I follow Mme Pou.

Synopsis: This inscription, with a bloc of 14 lines damaged, records the names of two groups of slaves given by the chief lord of Jyeṣṭhapura, one group to Samareśvara, the other to Kumāra. Samareśvara (‘lord of war’) is unidentified, while Kumāra (‘prince’) is probably Skanda.


Catalog Number: K.516

Name: Mỹ-Hưng Boundary-Marker

Sources: H. Parmentier, “Notes archéologiques : Borne inscrite de Mỹ-Hưng,” in BEFEO, XX (1920).4 : 1-2 ; APK II : 57-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie-xiie siècles = A.D. 1078-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Mỹ-Hưng is a village in the canton of Bình-phú, Vĩnh-long province, Vietnam. Found by Parmentier at a small temple near the village in 1919 was a pyramidal boundary-marker bearing this 4-line inscription, read and translated by Cœdès.

Synopsis: The sole linguistic interest of this short text is an apparent misspelling.


Catalog Number: K.521

Name: Inscriptions of Pràsàt Čak

Sources: C IV: 167-70.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date: The “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 161) gives Śaka xe siècle (A.D. 978-1077) while C IV: 167 places it ‘sensiblement postérieur à Sūryavarman Ier’.

Provenance: Pràsàt Čak, discovered in 1919, lies 2.7 kilometers due northwest of Siem Reap and consists of two brick towers. The south piédroits of the portals of both towers bear inscriptions in Khmer: the south tower a text of 15 lines, the north tower a text of 15 lines plus two words.

Synopsis: This inscription exhibits Angkorian Khmer at its most expressive. It first recounts an episode in which young Jayavarman III recovers a captured elephant through the intervention of Viṣṇu. It then evolves into an abstract of title, its well-ordered argument progressing from the origin of a tract of land known as Viṣṇugrāma (line S: 1-15) to its subsequent ownership by the queen Śrī Vīralakṣmī (N: 1-3) and its delimitation (N: 3-16). Despite lacunæ, obscurities and a number of ambiguities, the text proves lively, supple, and rich in grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.523

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Aksar

Sources: C III: 136-42.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1040 = A.D. 1118)

Conventional date: This date is given in line D: 1.

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Aksar see № 8, note 2. Found on the site was a stele inscribed on all four faces, the order of which is in doubt. Face A comprises 29 lines in Sanskrit and 1 line in Khmer, this much flanked on the right (as Cœdès says) by 3 lines in Khmer written vertically from bottom to top. Face B contains about 32 lines in Khmer, face C 30 lines in Khmer, face D 28 lines in Khmer. The Khmer text hence amounts to approximately 94 lines.

Synopsis: What might have been an inscription of major interest is fraught with lacunæ which make its analysis laborious and frustrating. Its purpose cannot be stated with any certainty, though it seems to concern an endowment to Śiva by the tapasvin Vidyāspada. No coherent sense can be made of face A, while face B offers a single incomplete passage (lines 30-2) of interest. Enough remains to make it worth the reader’s time to examine the text in full. Face C offers a challenging śāpānugraha, and face D from line 5 to the end contains a handful of passages exhibiting the language as its best.


Catalog Number: K.524

Name: Inscription of Phnoṃ Aksar

Sources: C III: 134-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1039 = A.D. 1117)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Aksar is a hill located by Cœdès in Siem Reap province, probably in the sruk of Angkor Chum, ‘au nord de Pûok aux environs de l’ancienne chaussée khmère’ and ‘entre Daṃnằk Sdằc et Pràsàt Smàn Yun’. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 400, shows Pûok a short distance west of the Bàrày Occidental with ‘Damnak Sdach’ and ‘Sman Young’ some 35 kilometers due north; his second map facing page 400 shows the ancient causeway and Pûok 18 kilometers due northwest of the provincial seat. This 10-line inscription, described as rupestre, is from a stone bloc found on the hill and consists of 4 lines in Sanskrit followed by 6 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: The condition of these 6 lines precludes making sense of more than the first two passages, which concern the installation of three śivaliṅga on Vnaṃ Thṅe by a tapasvin named Vidyāvāsa.


Catalog Number: K.526

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Prei

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 116, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.531

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Kdĕi

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 103, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.536

Name: Graffito of Tà Kèv

Sources: BEFEO, XXXIV (1934): 419; APK, II: 71.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: No date is assigned to this inscription by the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 165). It may be referable to the reign of Yaśovarman (A.D. 889-900).

Provenance: For the location of Tà Kèv see the pre-Angkorian volume, № 10, note 2. This single line is from the east piédroit of the north lateral bay of Tà Kèv.

Synopsis: A scrap of little consequence posing a typical problem of interpretation.


Catalog Number: K.538

Name: Fragments from Phum Ta Tru

Sources: BEFEO, XXV (1925).3-4: 369-72.

Śaka date: (Śaka 900 = A.D. 978)

Conventional date:

Provenance: As Finot describes it, Phum Ta Tru was the only modern community situated within the confines of Aṅkor Thoṃ, being located on the east side of the main road about 400 meters south of the Bayon. These two inscriptions were discovered by Henri Marchal in July of 1922. Their historical interest is confined to the eclipse of the moon mentioned in A: 3 and their relevance to the career of Divākarabhaṭṭa.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.539

Name: Inscriptions of the Bàyon

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes. XIX. – La date du Bàyon. Appendice : Les inscriptions du Bàyon,” in BEFEO, XXVIII (1928).1-2 : 110-2; C III: 197 (inscription A, corrected).

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of the Bàyon see III, № 29, note 2.

Synopsis: This series of 17 short inscriptions continues those collected under № 24.


Catalog Number: K.540

Name: Stone from the Bàyon

Sources: C III: 193.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of the Bàyon see III, № 29, note 2.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.542N

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Khlẵṅ (North)

Sources: C III: 221-4, untranslated; AIC, II: 940-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Khlẵṅ see the pre-Angkorian volume, № 118, note 2, or II, № 32, note 2. This inscription is on the north piédroit of the south portal of the east façade and comprises 36 lines of which the first 5 are in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: Ths condition of this inscription makes translation and description impossible.


Catalog Number: K.548

Name: Aṅkor Bórĕi Fragment

Sources: C II: 154, untranslated; AIC, I: 209-11.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Aṅkor Bórĕi see № 1, note 2. Found at the site is this schist fragment bearing 7 lines illegible on left and right sides.

Synopsis: This 7-line scrap speaks for itself: a list of field hands, male and female, together with cattle and riceland. Neither the donor nor the recipient is mentioned.


Catalog Number: K.550

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Thoṃ

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 117, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.551

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Thoṃ

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 116, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.555 and K.25

Name: Stele of Aṅkor Bórĕi

Sources: C II: 18 (K.555), C VI: 31 (K.25).

Śaka date: (Śaka ve-vie siècles = A.D. 478-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Aṅkor Bórĕi see № 1, note 2. Some time after its recovery on the left bank of the river of Aṅkor Borĕi between Vằt Črôy and Vằt Kŏṃpoṅ Lûoṅ (C II: 18), K.555 was taken to be the same as K.25, recovered by Aymonier « derrière la maison d’un Chinois » on the same bank of the same river (C VI: 31). The reason for this decision is decidedly unclear. In any case, K.555 is now carried as vacant in the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 166). As Cœdès says (C VI: 31), ‘L’estampage d’Aymonier . . . a été pris à une époque où l’inscription comportait à sa partie supérieure une ligne de plus, et il permit en outre une lecture plus complète de la première ligne visible sur les estampages pris postérieurment’.

Synopsis: The condition of this inscription is such that no coherent meaning can be developed out of it, but to dismiss this or any similar inscription because it is unintelligible is to reject data which may be usable in the analysis of other texts. In the present case two occurrence of gniḥ and one occurrence of gnoḥ are sure indications of influence from the spoken language.


Catalog Number: K.556

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Dà

Sources: C II: 19-20, with a translation not reproduced here; AIC, I: 621-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-900)

Conventional date: The text presumably (C II: 19) dates from the reign of Rājendravarman (A.D. 944-968).

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Dà see the pre-Angkorian volume, № 81, note 2. This inscription is on a fragment with its top and bottom missing and split diagonally so that none of the legible parts is complete.

Synopsis: Another ruined text, of interest chiefly in showing how much or how little meaning can be drawn from it.


Catalog Number: K.557 and K.600

Name: Inscription of Aṅkor Bórĕi

Sources: C II: 21-3; AIC, I: 245-50, IV: 67; VS, 33-41.

Śaka date: (Śaka 533 = A.D. 612)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Friday, 21 January, A.D. 612, approximately 21:52 hours, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 2).

Provenance: Aṅkor Bórĕi is a site in Tà Kèv (Takéo) province in the sruk of Aṅkor Bórĕi, lying about 60 kilometers due south of Phnom-Penh and a short distance from the right bank of what used to be called the Fleuve Postérieur. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 192.

Synopsis: The “Liste générale des inscriptions du Cambodge” (C VIII: 166) describes K.557 as a 3-line fragment dated Śaka 533, found at Tûol Vằt Koṃnu (Takéo province), while the same source (C VIII: 172) describes K.600 as a bloc of the same date with text on three sides, found at Aṅkor Bórĕi. Some time after the two inscriptions were assigned these accession numbers it was recognized that K.557 was not a separate inscription but the south face of K.600. The earliest of the dated inscriptions recovered so far, the text is for the most part not only legible but structurally well-defined, despite a few ambiguities. Its sole peculiarity is that it begins on the north face of the stone. Its purpose is to record the gift of chattels to five divinities: the kpoñ kamratāṅ ˀ in N: 1; Gaṇeśa in N: 2; the vraḥ kamratāṅ ˀ□□□□śvara and the vraḥ kamratāṅ teṃ kroṃ in E: 1; and the vraḥ maṇīśvara in E: 9.


Catalog Number: K.559

Name: Tûol Aṅ Fragments

Sources: C II: 36; AIC, I: 213-5, IV: 59.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Aṅ is a small hill in the sruk of Bati, Tà Kèv province. Not shown on modern maps available to me, it lies some 30 kilometers south of Phnom-Penh. These three fragments, apparently unrelated, were found in 1923 on the hill.

Synopsis: The first of these scraps lists slaves given to a divinity, the names of both donor and divinity being illegible. The second and third scraps record the gift of riceland.


Catalog Number: K.560 and K.739

Name: Stele of Vằt Aṅ Khàv

Sources: C II: 37 (K.560), VI: 54 (K.739); AIC, I: 216-8, IV: 60.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The modern temple of Vằt Aṅ Khvàv is located in the sruk of Bàti, Tà Kèv province, about 30 kilometers south of Phnom-Penh. Found on its premises in 1923 was a stele measuring o.50 x o.53 meter and bearing 12 lines in Khmer. K.739, some time after its accession and publication (C VI: 54), proved to be the same text, though 15 lines are attributed to it and the head of each line is illegible; K.739 is now carried as vacant in the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 192).

Synopsis: This inscription reports gifts to Maṇiśiva made by a poñ Vajrabheda: small articles, a granary, 48 male and female slaves, 7 tracts of riceland, cattle, and palms. With only sporadic lacunæ, the text is of moderate grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.561

Name: Piédroit of Tûol Aṅ Tnòt

Sources: C II: 39; AIC I: 219-26.

Śaka date: (Śaka 603 = A.D. 681)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is A.D. 681/682, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 5).

Provenance: Tûol Aṅ Tnòt is an eminence in Tà Kèv province which Cœdès first (C II: 39) locates in the sruk of Bati but later (C III: 147, note 6) places a short distance west of Vằt Pô, probably in the modern sruk of Treang. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 160, shows ‘Ang Pou (Vat Pou)’ about 23 kilometers due west-northwest of Chau Doc and 27 kilometers due southeast of Takeo; the distance from the latter on modern maps is much shorter. This inscription, found in 1923, comprises 42 lines of which the first 6 are in Sanskrit, the remaining 36 in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription records an endowment to Śiva under the name of My Holy High Lord of the Khaṇḍaliṅga. Co-beneficiaries are clerics, visitors, and ancestors, while maintenance is also provided for conscripts. Donors are a poñ Bhavacandra, members of his family, and nine others associated with them. The endowment consists of milled rice, several types of unknown cloth, riceland, slaves, and several items as yet unidentified. The organization of the text lacks the clarity of many earlier inscriptions but is, thanks to its length, a rich source of linguistic data.


Catalog Number: K.562

Name: Stele of Tûol Aṅ Khvàv

Sources: C II: 196-7; AIC, I: 227-31, IV: 62.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Aṅ Khvàv is a low hill in the sruk of Tràm Kŏk, Tà Kèv province, a short distance west of the provincial capital; I have not found it on modern maps. The schist stele found on the hill measures o.97 x o.43 x o.07 meter and bears an inscription in Khmer of 25 lines.

Synopsis: The first 8½ lines of this inscription record 62 female slaves with children, as well as cattle and rice-land, given to Śrī Bhīmeśvara by a lord Maheśvarasvāmi and his wife. The last 16½ lines record 111 additional slaves (13 males, 43 females, 55 children), as well as other property, given to the same divinity by the same donor in association with unnamed kloñ and loñ. The grammatical interest of the text is moderate.


Catalog Number: K.563

Name: Stele of Phum Črei

Sources: C II: 198; AIC, I: 232-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phum Črei is described by Cœdès (C II: 198) as a village in the sruk of Koṅ Pisĕi, Kompong Speu province. My maps show it lying just across the border in sruk Bati of Tà Kèv province, about 31 kilometers southwest of Phnom-Penh. The stele in question, a schist slab measuring 0.97 x 0.43 x o.07 meter, was found in the forest between phum Črei and the village of Snàm Krapơ. It bears an inscription of 13 lines, of which the first 2 are in Sanskrit, the remaining 11 in Khmer.

Synopsis: This short inscription records gifts to the Elder Nārāyaṇa (Viṣṇu) in two increments. The first increment, through a yajamāna who may be named in lines 9 and 12, consists of 11 slaves, riceland, a garden, a granary, coconut and areca palms, and cattle — of which the slaves and riceland are to be shared with Śrī Kapilavāsudeva. The second increment consists of 5 slaves given by a poñ Nideśotsāha (who may be the yajamāna of the first increment) jointly with the head of his gotra.


Catalog Number: K.566

Name: Stele from the upper Stưṅ Srèṅ

Sources: C V: 182-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The stưṅ Srèṅ, possibly the ancient chdiṅ Jairāga (C V: 185, note 1), rises in the sruk of Varin in northern Siem Reap province, flows southwestward into the sruk of Angkor Chum and Kralanh. This inscription was found in 1923 in the the vicinity of Pràsàt Rovieṅ in Angkor Chum and bears an inscription in Khmer on both faces: face A, 20 lines partially legible; face B: 23 lines mostly legible.

Synopsis: The purpose of this 43-line inscription is muddled by the condition of face A. It appears to be concerned throughout with two tracts of land which a vāp Brahma has pledged to members of his wife’s family. Delay in the conveyance of these tracts is brought to the attention of the sovereign and the royal court, who act with apparent dispatch. The matter is resolved to the satisfaction of all parties.


Catalog Number: K.569/1°

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Srĕi

Sources: Louis Finot, “Le temple d’Içvarapura (Bantãy Srĕi, Cambodge),” in Les inscriptions et l’histoire, III, in Mémoires Archéologiques …, I (1926), № 4: 77-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 933 = A.D. 1011)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Bantãy Srĕi see I, № 64. This inscription of 10 lines is from the north piédroit of the west inner portal of gopura III.E., is nearly identical with K.572, and is followed by 26 lines in Khmer dated Śaka 1228. Finot’s translation is based on K.572 but includes variants from K.569.

Synopsis: This 10-line inscription appears to be an early version of № 34, and comparison of the two is instructive. For all its brevity, the text offers at least one lexical conundrum and one grammatical structure heretofore unattested.


Catalog Number: K.569

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Srĕi

Sources: Louis Finot, “Les inscriptions et l’histoire, III,” in MA I, № 4: 79-82 (hereafter Finot); NIC II: 174-82, II/III: 166-71 (hereafter Pou).

Śaka date: (Śaka 1228 = A.D. 1306)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Bantãy Srĕi see I, № 64, note 2. This 26-line text is from the north piédroit of the west inner portal of gopura III E. For historical background see Cœdès, Les États hindouisés, 383-5 (English edition: 211-2). The progression of ideas in this text is likely to baffle the reader; as clearly as possible, its underlying logic is described by Pou, 171, note 21.

Synopsis: This is one of the best, most difficult and most interesting short inscriptions of the period. It is tempting to ascribe its congestion to a late Angkorian stylistic development, but it could have been written in any of the preceding centuries. The text is one which deserves the reader’s closest study, and he may find it as diverting as it is perplexing. Its ostensible purpose is to record the solution, after a delay of over eighty years, to a legal problem regarding a supply of firewood. The matter needing adjudication, which may have been taken as a case of lèse-majesté, is not introduced until the fourth passage. If it is surprising to find such a commonplace issue committed to stone, the elaborate introduction in the first three passages as well as the grandiloquence of the closing passage suggest a higher purpose not easy to define.


Catalog Number: K.571

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Srĕi

Sources: Louis Finot, “Les inscriptions et l’histoire. – III. Le temple d’Içvarapura (Bantãy Srĕi, Cambodge),” in MA, I (1926): 74-7, hereafter Finot; NIC II/III: 111-4, hereafter Pou.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Bantãy Srĕi see I, № 64, note 2. This inscription is on the north piédroit of the east inner portal of gopura III (East) and consists of 34 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This 34-line inscription records a dry enumeration of allowances made, apparently by an unnamed sovereign, to various ecclesiastics and the parishes under their administration. Devoid of grammatical interest, the text is not without value for its inventory of toponyms and a few lexical items.


Catalog Number: K.572

Name: Slab of Aṅkor Thoṃ12

Sources: Louis Finot, “Le temple d’Içvarapura (Bantãy Srĕi, Cambodge),” in Mémoires Archéologiques …, I (1926), № 3: 77-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: I take the date from the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 171). Finot assigns it to the reign of Yaśovarman (A.D. 889-900).

Provenance: For the location of Bantãy Srĕi see I, № 64. This 12-line text is from the north piédroit of the outer west portal of gopura III.E, and is nearly identical with that of № 33.

Synopsis: Another fragment from which little sense can be extracted.


Catalog Number: K.582

Name: Inscription of Tûol Tramuṅ

Sources: C II: 200; AIC I: 235-7, IV: 64.

Śaka date: (Śaka 589 = A.D. 667)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is approximately 01:05 hours, Thursday, 30 September, A.D. 667, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 4). AIC, I: 237, likewise gives the year as 589 Çaka (A.D. 667). The year indicated in the first two lines, which open with a seven-place lacuna, was taken by Cœdès to be Śaka 615 (A.D. 693), which is given again in the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 171); cf. also C II: 201, note 1.

Provenance: As Cœdès describes it (C II: 200), Tûol Tramuṅ is a piece of high ground in the middle of a reservoir in the phum of Trai Trak, sruk of Koṅ Pisĕi, Kompong Speu province. I fail to find the phum on modern maps but the sruk is located in the southeast of the province about 20 kilometers southeast of Kompong Speu, barely 20 kilometers due southwest of Phnom-Penh. This inscription, on a small schist slab, was found in 1924 and comprises 8 lines: the first 2 in Sanskrit, the following 6 in Khmer.

Synopsis: This short inscription records gifts to Śrī Kedāreśvara made by three individuals: 17 slaves, livestock, a granary, a piece of riceland, and coconut and areca palms. The interest of the terse closing provision is increased by three errors which must be corrected.


Catalog Number: K.583

Name: Stele of the Bàpûon

Sources: Claude Jacques, “Études d’épigraphie cambodgienne. IX. — La stèle du Baphûon, K.583,” in BEFEO, LXIII (1976): 351-68 + planches; superseding both Louis Finot, “Inscriptions d’Aṅkor. — V. Baphuon,” in BEFEO, XXV (1925): 352-3, and C VII: 84-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: M. Jacques assigns the text to the reign of Rājendravarman (357, Commentaires).

Provenance: The Bàpûon is a spectacular pyramidal temple-mountain located in the heart of Aṅkor Thoṃ, immediately to the south of the Phĭmãnàkàs and some 200 meters northwest of the Bàyon. As M. Jacques reports, the first part of this inscription (in two pieces) was recovered in 1924 and published by Finot the following year without a translation; another part was recovered in 1959 and published by Cœdès in 1964; subsequently two more parts were recovered, confirming the importance of the text but not accounting for the entire stele.

Synopsis: An inscription in a poor state of preservation and involving difficulties of interpretation. It appears to be concerned exclusively with the installation of a śivaliṅga in a sruk in Liṅgapura by a prince Śrī Indrāyudha, son of Jayavarman II. It ends in a curiously worded admonition, which appears to be unfinished.


Catalog Number: K.591 and K.819

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Saṅ Kabàn

Sources: K.591: C III: 132-3, AIC, III: 1444-9; K.819: C V: 158-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 915 = A.D. 993)

Conventional date: The ‘Liste générale … ‘ assigns K.819 to Śaka 915 (C VIII: 203), K.591 to Śaka 914 (C VIII: 171), which M. Claude Jacques has corrected to Śaka 915.

Provenance: Phnoṃ Saṅ Kabàn is located in Batdambang province, between Vat Ek (8 kilometers north of Batdambang) and Phnoṃ Bantãy Nãṅ (about 3 kilometers southeast of Mongol-borei). It is the ‘Pn. Sang Keban’ shown on Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 304, as lying 39 kilometers north-northwest of Batdambang. K.591 is represented by two estampages assigned this provenance and comprising 19 and 13 lines. The text registered as K.819 was transcribed directly from a stele of unknown origin in the Musée de Phnoṃ Péñ (D 79), comprising some 20 lines on one face, 18 lines on the other. Comparison shows that the estampages of K.591 were made from the stele of K.819. The two texts are here combined, using K.819 as the basis.

Synopsis: A composite text illustrating typical problems of decipherment. Its condition defies analysis and coherent interpretation.


Catalog Number: K.592

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Čhmàr

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 117, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.594

Name: Fragment from Pràsàt Práḥ Phnoṃ

Sources: C III: 120-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe-xe siècles = A.D. 878-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Práḥ Phnoṃ is a group of five ruined brick towers in Batdambang province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: 362 describes it briefly and locates it a few leagues east of “Kouk Mon”, shown on loc.cit., first map facing page 304, about 53 kilometers north-northeast of Svay Chek and roughly 15 kilometers south of the Dangrêk escarpment.

Synopsis: The purport of these 16 ruined lines is beyond recovery.


Catalog Number: K.598

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Rŭn

Sources: Lous Finot, “La stèle du Pràsàt Trapãṅ Run,” in BEFEO, XXVIII (1928): 58-80, hereafter referred to as Finot; NIC II/III: 230-9, hereafter referred to as Pou.

Śaka date: (Śaka 928 = A.D. 1006)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Rŭn is in the sruk of Sotr Nikom, Siem Reap province, some 30 kilometers southeast of the provincial seat on the south side of National Route 6. Now little more than a pile of bricks, it marks the site of the ancient Vaiṣṇavite center of Vrai Karaṅ. This inscription is on a stele of four faces, disposed as follows: face A: 59 lines in Sanskrit; face B: 63 lines in Khmer; face C: 15 lines in Khmer; face D: 12 lines in Khmer. For a discussion of some of the toponyms in the text see Claude Jacques, “Études d’épigraphie cambodgienne. X. – Autour de quelques toponymes de l’inscription du Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Rŭṅ K.598 … “, in BEFEO, LXV (1978): 281-321, with plates.

Synopsis: This is another inscription which is well-written and for the most part clear, despite a few lacunæ. Because of its length (90 lines) and varied themes, it exhibits nearly the whole range of Old Khmer grammar within a narrow compass, and the reader who masters its mechanisms will, apart from inevitable lexical problems, have easy command of the Angkorian corpus. While faces C and D are occupied by short slavelists, the whole of face B is devoted to a chief lord Śrī Kavīndrapaṇḍita, who sues for a royal benefice in Aninditapura to offer up to the Nārāyaṇa at Vrai Karaṅ, and to a description of the procedures followed to secure the grant to the petitioner, including satisfaction to persons wrongfully occupying part of the tract selected. The text throws welcome light on legal practices of the times and on the nature of landholding. Should it prove useful to the student, my version may be taken as a tribute to the excellence of the pioneering version of Louis Finot.


Catalog Number: K.603

Name: Fragment from Aṅkor Thoṃ

Sources: C IV: 79-80.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This 3-line fragment, broken in two, was among re-used stone found in a 12th-century building discovered on the west side of the west gate of Aṅkor Thoṃ in 1926.

Synopsis: A mere scrap of no grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.605

Name: Fragment from Aṅkor Thoṃ

Sources: C IV: 77-8, without translation.

Śaka date: (Śaka 845 = A.D. 923)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This inscription is the earliest of four recovered from the ruins of a late 12th-century building, just west of the west door of Aṅkor Thoṃ, in the construction of which older material was used.

Synopsis: This 11-line inscription records the joining of the sanctuary of Siddhāyatana with that of Liṅgapura, an allowance of rice, and the assignment of slaves for service presumably to both.


Catalog Number: K.607

Name: Stele of Sambór Prei Kŭk

Sources: Analysis of seven fragments received 10 December 2006 from M. Dominique Soutif, amplified by new readings received from him 7 January 2007; these are identified hereafter as DS; and an unpublished manuscript by M. Claude Jacques received in or about 1986, identified hereafter as CJ.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Sambór Prei Kuk, see № 63, note 2. C IV: 19: ‘K. 607, trouvée en février [1927] à l’est de S1, et dont l’estampage a malheureusement disparu, n’est représentée à Hanoi que par deux petits morceaux conservés au musée L. Finot (B, 3, 14) et les estampages de menus fragments découverts après coup. C’était, d’après L. Finot, un texte khmèr donnant une simple liste d’esclaves ( et ku) dont l’introduction manque’. DS (7 January 2007): ‘En fait cette lecture correspond aux fragments A et C qui sont assemblés. Ce fragment permet de garantir l’existence de deux lignes en plus (20 lignes et non 18), de constater qu’une autre liste d’esclaves précédait ce qui reste de l’inscription et surtout de garantir la lecture de vraḥ kamratāṅ ˀ à la ligne 3’. M. Soutif’s fragments B, a through g, are here omitted.

Synopsis: Lines 1-7 of this inscription consist of a list of some 44 slaves given by a Śrī Bhavavarman to a divinity whose name is obliterated, while lines 8-16 list about 35 slaves given by the same individual to a My Holy High Lord of the mucaliṅga, together with cattle and riceland. The text offers little of grammatical interest, but is a good source of onomastic data.


Catalog Number: K.608

Name: Fragment from Sambór Prei Kŭk

Sources: Claude Jacques, unpublished manuscript, No. 82: 2-6. Parentheses mark forms which are less than certain.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Sambór Prei Kŭk see № 63 , note 2. C IV: 19: ‘K. 608, trouvée entre S1 et S2 …, est un petit fragment de schiste portant 6 l. d’une liste d’esclaves analogue à la précédente [K.607], mais qui semble provenir d’une autre stele’. All interpolations are by CJ.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.617

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Sek Tà Tuy

Sources: BEFEO, XXVIII: 56-7, hereafter Finot; NIC II/III: 224-9, hereafter Pou.

Śaka date: (Śaka 948? = A.D. 1026?)

Conventional date: The date is from K.618: 1, which Finot took to be 961 and Cœdès took to be 948. Pou favors the latter, but the reading is uncertain.

Provenance: Pràsàt Sek Tà Tuy is a sanctuary in Siem Reap province which I have not been able to locate. This inscription and K.618 (№ 50), which form a single text, are from the piédroits of the inner portal of the site’s gopura II (east). K.617, containing 30 lines in Khmer, is from the south piédroit, while K.618, containing 46 lines, is from the north piédroit. Finot’s transcriptions are not followed by translations. Reconciling the length of Finot’s lacunæ with those of Pou being out of the question, I postulate twenty akṣara to the line and subtract accordingly.

Synopsis: Because of its sorry condition the precise purpose of this inscription cannot be known. Little of grammatical interest appears in what is legible, but several passages are comprehensible.


Catalog Number: K.618

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Sek Tà Tuy

Sources: BEFEO, XXVIII: 56-7, hereafter Finot; NIC II/III: 224-9, hereafter Pou.

Śaka date: (Śaka 948? = A.D. 1026?)

Conventional date: See № 49, note 3.

Provenance: See № 49, note 2. This inscription of 46 lines is from the north piédroit of the inner portal of the site’s gopura II (east) forms a single text with K.617. As has been said, Finot’s transcriptions are not followed by translations. I postulate twenty akṣara to the line and subtract accordingly in estimating the many lacunæ.

Synopsis: Numerous lacunæ continue to interrupt this second face of the inscription down to line 32, after which the condition of the stone improves. As far as it can be understood, its purpose is to record land and chattels dedicated by a kaṃsten Vrek to the High Lord of the World at Vnaṃ Vrāhmaṇa, which are then presented to Sūryavarman I as a rājadharma and returned to the kaṃsteṅ as a royal benefice.


Catalog Number: K.621

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 109, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.622

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 109, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.623

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 112, untranslated; APK I : 343-65. Interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.624

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 113, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.625

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 112, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.626

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 112, untranslated; APK I : 343-65. The interpolations is by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.627

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 115, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.628

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 115, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.629

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 115, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.630

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 115, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.631

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 115-6, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.632

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 114, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.633

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 114, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.634

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 113, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.635

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 113, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.636

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 114, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.637

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 114, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.638 = K.462B

Name:

Sources:

Śaka date:

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.639 = K.462K

Name:

Sources:

Śaka date:

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.640

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 108, untranslated; APK I : 343-65. The interpolation is by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.641

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 109, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.642

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 97-119, untranslated, hereafter Cœdès; APK I : 343-65. The interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.648

Name: Inscription of Nẵk Tà Tằṅ Rãy

Sources: C VI: 16-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Cœdès (C VI: 16) locates Nẵk Tà Tằṅ Rãy in the khum of Sandèk, khằnd of Čơṅ Prei, Kompong Cham province. I fail to find it on modern maps. Found at the site in 1929 is a stone bearing a inscription of 18 lines in Khmer, the inscribed surface measuring 0.70 x o.40 meter.

Synopsis: This short inscription reports gifts made to Śrī Avimuktakeśvara by the kurāk and headmen of certain frontier communities: chiefly slaves, but also riceland, cattle, and a plantation. The text has little of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.650

Name: Stele of Práḥ Thãt Práḥ Srĕi

Sources: C V: 170-2.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Práḥ Thãt Práḥ Srĕi is located in the khằnd of Thbóṅ Khmum in Kŏṃpoṅ Čàm province (C V: 32). Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 280, shows it about 5 kilometers east of the ‘Beng Preah Pit’ (Bĕṅ Práḥ Pĭt).

Synopsis: This 48-line inscription records an order by Jayavarman V addessed to a teṅ Pit Thṅe and six others for the integration of a śivaliṅga with the High Lord of the World at Rṅāl. Allowances to the two divinities as well as 84 slaves, cattle, and ricelands, all by the teṅ Pit Thṅe and several associates, are listed. The text is generally clear but its exposition, notably in the last seven lines, is of inferior quality.


Catalog Number: K.653

Name: Inscription of Tûol Tà Pèn

Sources: C V: 114.

Śaka date: (Śaka 878 = A.D. 956)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Tà Pèn is located in the khaṇḍ of Kompong Trabek, Prey Veng province. This inscription of ten lines is unfinished.

Synopsis: An unfinished inscription of 10 lines in which an elaborate opening passage is followed by a compound sentence unfortunately interrupted.


Catalog Number: K.657

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Práḥ Lãn

Sources: C VI: 46, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The exact provenance of this inscription is unclear. Práḥ Lãn is an ancient monument on a sandstone outcrop on a southeastern spur of Phnom Tbeng. The “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 180) places it in Kompong Thom province; to this Cœdès (C VI: 46) adds that it is in the sruk of Promtép. Since the reorganization of administrative territories it is now in the sruk of Rovieng, Preah Vihear province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 376, shows it some 35 kilometers due southwest of Mlu Prei. It appears, however, that the stele was seen in 1929 by H. Parmentier at an unidentified point 20 kilometers to the north. The stele measures o.65 x o.35 x o.08 meter and bears an inscription of 8 lines.

Synopsis: This inscription is short, enigmatic, and probably a fragment. Its sole distinction is its closing admonition to persons molesting seven slaves given to an unidentified kuṭī by an unnamed donor.


Catalog Number: K.659

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Ó Roṃduol

Sources: C V: 143-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 890 = A.D. 968)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Ó Roṃduol is a tower located in Preah Vihear province 5 kilometers southwest of Phum Kantûot, which lies 7 kilometers south-southwest of Mlu Prei and about 80 kilometers due west-northwest of Stung Treng. This inscription of 30 lines is from the north piédroit of the east portal.

Synopsis: This somewhat peculiar inscription reports a royal directive granting a vāp Paramācārya the right to set up a śivaliṅga on a tract of land which he has acquired at Vrai Thṅās. The directive assigns jurisdiction over the land to the vāp’s descendants who are in holy orders, exempts the property from civil control, enumerates allowances made to the divinity, and defines the boundaries of the land in question. The text offers little of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.660

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Khnà

Sources: C I: 195-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 963 = A.D. 1041)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Khnà see I, № 84, note 2. This 11-line inscription is from the north piédroit of the south portal of the sanctuary’s east gopura. It opens with 3 ruined lines in Sanskrit. These are followed by 8 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This brief inscription records three articles presented to Sūryavarman I by the younger brother of queen Vīralakṣmī to serve as offerings by the sovereign to the High Lord of the World the Śakabrāhmaṇa.


Catalog Number: K.664

Name: Stele of Saṃbuor

Sources: C V: 69.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The phum of Saṃbuor is described as located in Kandàl province. I fail to find it on modern maps. A flat stele found in the village, measuring o.73 x o.45 meter, bears an inscription of 14 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription is a record of gifts to Tilakeśvara made by a lord Kumārasvāmi: 30 adult slaves with 37 children, at least 3 tracts of riceland, and cattle. The text is of moderate grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.669

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Kŏṃphưs

Sources: C I: 159-86.

Śaka date: (Śaka 894 = A.D. 972)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Kŏṃphưs is in Preah Vihear province. Cœdès (C I: 159) describes it as lying in the khuṃ of Yāṅ (Mlu Prei), 25 kilometers from Koḥ Ker, 16 kilometers south of Phnoṃ Sandak, and 7 kilometers from Čãn Sraṃ; these distances are hard to reconcile. A rough idea of its location can be had from Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 424. The monument is a group of five brick towers discovered in 1929. The stele found in the courtyard of the central tower measures 1.15 x o.62 x o.29 meters and bears text on all four of its sides: face A, 49 lines in Sanskrit; face B, 39 lines in Khmer followed by 7 lines in Sanskrit; face C, 59 lines in Khmer interspersed with 7 Sanskrit stanzas; and face D, 47 lines in Khmer. The Khmer text is hence 145 lines.

Synopsis: This 145-line inscription, interspersed with Sanskrit stanzas, opens with the brāhmaṇa Divākarabhaṭṭa informing Jayavarman V that the late Rājendravarman had awarded him two sruk in Pūrvadiśa as dakṣiṇā for performing a Dvādaśarātri sacrifice. A royal directive assigns a kaṃsteṅ ˀ Vīrendravarman to set up a proclamation revalidating this royal benefice and names nine witnesses to its implementation. The remainder of the inscription is taken up with the details of an endowment by Divākarabhaṭṭa and persons associated with him to several divinities. Despite its length, the text offers little of grammatical interest. It is, however, an excellent source of onomastic and lexical data.


Catalog Number: K.670

Name: Phnoṃ Dà Fragments

Sources: C VII: 88.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: These two fragments were found in 1933 between the fourth and fifth grottos on Phnoṃ Dà. Of 5 lines each, they appear to be the end of two unrelated inscriptions. I replace Cœdès’s hyphens with the □ and number his lines.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.674

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Dàn

Sources: C VII: 89-90.

Śaka date: (Śaka 888 = A.D. 966)

Conventional date: The ‘Liste générale …’ (C VIII: 183) has a question-mark after the year 888, but the dating is nowhere discussed.

Provenance: Pràsàt Dàn, located in Kompong Thom province about 42 kilometers east of Phnom Kulen, is a brick and laterite tower forming part of the Kòḥ Ker group (№ 19, note 2), lying 3 kilometers northwest of the Rahàl. This inscription of 18 lines is from the south piédroit of the east portal.

Synopsis: Only the first 10 lines of this 18-line inscription are legible. They appear to report a royal directive having to do with ricefields unlawfully assigned to a Śivapurāśrama.


Catalog Number: K.677N

Name: Piédroit de Pràsàt Daṃrĕi

Sources: NIC II/III: 98, hereafter identified as Pou; for her hyphens (-) is substitute □. The text is noted at C I: 56: ‘… le piédroit nord devait avoir une quarantaine de lignes dont les dix premièressont complètement ruinées, et le reste sans intérêt’. At C I: 59 the text is dismissed: ‘Le piédroit nord porte une quarataine de lignes en khmer dont les dix premières sont complètement ruinées. Quand le texte devient lisible, il donne une liste de gho, de gvāl et de tai’.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Daṃrĕi is a sanctuary in the Kòḥ Ker group, for the location of which see I, № 19, note 2.

Synopsis: The south piédroit of Pràsàt Daṃrĕi bears 48 lines in Sanskrit; these are followed on the north piédroit by 36 lines in Khmer devoted entirely to a list of some 89 slaves, which is of onomastic value and includes a use of rat not hitherto registered.


Catalog Number: K.680

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Ropou

Sources: C VII: 91-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe-xe siècles = A.D. 878-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Ropou see II, № 8, note 2. This inscription is from the southernmost of the monument’s three towers. The text on the south piédroit, of an indeterminate number of lines, is largely ruined: it begins with a few lines in Sanskrit and ends with 4 lines in Khmer. The south piédroit bears 32 lines. Of these the first 17 lines are ruined; lines 18-21 are legible in part; lines 22-32 are largely legible.

Synopsis: The condition of this inscription obscures its purpose and makes grammatical description pointless.


Catalog Number: K.682A

Name: Inscription of Kòḥ Ker

Sources: BEFEO, XXXI (1931).1-2: 15.

Śaka date: (Śaka 843 = A.D. 921)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Kòḥ Ker, the ancient Chok Gargyar, is located in Preah Vihear province about 76 kilometers due northeast of Siem Reap, about 38 kilometers due east by north of Phnom Kulen. See Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 424, also the sketch map facing page 400. All three inscriptions included under K.682 are from the Pràsàt Thoṃ, west portico of the east gopura II, second pillar of the west range.

Synopsis: In this short inscription a lord Śikhāvindu offers up slaves, two ricefields, and cattle to the Holy High Lord of the World. Its chief interest is onomastic.


Catalog Number: K.682B

Name: Inscription of Kòḥ Ker

Sources: BEFEO. XXXI (1913).1-2: 15.

Śaka date: (Śaka 843 = A.D. 921)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Koḥ Ker see № 19, note 2.

Synopsis: A short inscription in a poor state of preservation.


Catalog Number: K.682C

Name: Inscription of Kòḥ Ker

Sources: C I: 50-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka 923 = A.D. 1001)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Kòḥ Ker see I, № 19, note 2. This inscription is from Pràsàt Thoṃ, the third of three found on the second pillar of the west range of the west portico of Gopura II.

Synopsis: Full comprehension of this inscription is frustrated by numerous lacunæ, all the more regrettable in that the text offers some unusual grammatical and lexical details. It records a royal order from Udayādityavarman I laying down prescriptions for servants and slaves of the High Lord of the World at Chok Gargyar. Lines 11-15 are devoted to a varaśāpa much out of the ordinary, while lines 15-28 are beyond recall.


Catalog Number: K.684

Name: Piédroit of Phnoṃ Bằkhèṅ

Sources: C IV: 106-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe-xe siècles = A.D. 878-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Bằkhèṅ, the Vnaṃ Kantāl of the text, see I, № 61, note 2. This inscription, on a piédroit recovered in 1931 among the ruins of a small building at the foot of the pyramid, consists of 18 lines, of which the first 2 are illegible.

Synopsis: An undistinguished inscription establishing title to a tract of land at Vnur Khliṅ, assigning the harvest from this tract and another to the management of members of a line of chowry-bearers, and recording an allowance to be made to the divinity of the central sanctuary.


Catalog Number: K.685

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Dón So

Sources: C IV: 206.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Dón So is located in Siem Reap province 6.3 kilometers southeast of the provincial seat and 6.5 kilometers west of the Bàkoṅ. This 8-line inscription in Khmer is borne on one of the piédroits of the portal to the westernmost of the four small buildings comprising the monument.

Synopsis: Short as it is, this inscription offers some useful points of grammar.


Catalog Number: K.688

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Prei Pràsàt

Sources: C IV: 36.

Śaka date: (Śaka 641 = A.D. 719)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Friday, 24 November, A.D. 719, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 6). The text’s vṛhaspatidivasavāra appears to extend to 6:oo A.M. on the next day. śukravāra.

Provenance: Located in Siem Reap province, Pràsàt Prei Pràsàt is, as Cœdès describes it, an ancient sanctuary first reported in 1931. It consists of two towers amidst the Rolûos group (about 11 kilometers southeast of Angkor) and lies 1500 meters southeast of Lolei and the same distance east-northeast of Práḥ Kô. This 9-line inscription is from the north piédroit of the north tower.

Synopsis: This short inscription, disfigured by lacunæ, reports the gift of riceland to a Śrī Kadambakeśvara by a poñ Śarvagupta, a lord Dadhikuṇḍasāgara serving as yajamāna.


Catalog Number: K.689

Name: Stele of Vằt Pô Rôṅ

Sources: C VI: 47, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The modern temple of Vằt Pô Rôṅ is located in Tà Kèv province, but more specific details are not furnished and I fail to find it on modern maps. Discovered on its premises in 1931 was a stele in several fragments which, reassembled, measures 1.25 x o.60 meters and bears an inscription on both faces. Face A comprises 19 lines, the first 4⅓ in Sanskrit, the remainder in Khmer; face B, comprising 20 lines, opens with 1 line in Khmer followed by 5½ lines in Sanskrit, the remainder being in Khmer.

Synopsis: The purpose of this inscription of some 28 lines is to register gifts to Śiva by a lord whose name is illegible and by several persons associated with him: commodities, servants, slaves, riceland with a dam, cattle, a granary, coconut and areca palms. Because of its many lacunæ and the presence of several unidentified lexical items the text is frustrating and my rendering is no more than a rough attempt to plumb its elusive meaning.


Catalog Number: K.691

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Ropou Annex

Sources: C IV: 151.

Śaka date: (Śaka 924 = A.D. 1002)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Ropou is a site in Siem Reap province south of the West Bàrày on the edge of the modern airfield. This 8-line inscription is from the south piédroit of the annex to the sanctuary.

Synopsis: This short inscription records the installation of the Sacred Fire, the assignment to it of eight slaves and an allowance of rice, and provisions for its perpetuation.


Catalog Number: K.693

Name: Stele of Stưṅ Čràp

Sources: C : V: 202-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 925 = A.D. 1003)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The stưṅ Čràp is a river of southeastern Batdambang province in the khaṇḍ of Mong Russey. Cœdès (C V: 202) states that this stele was found in the river about 6 kilometers below phum Tano and 17 kilometers above phum Mong on the road to Batdambang. The stone, measuring o.45 x o.34 x o.08 meters, bears an inscription on all four sides: face A, 17 lines in Khmer with three Sanskrit śloka in lines 9-12; face B, 31 lines, apparently all in Khmer; face C: 27 lines, apparently in Khmer (though lines 6-13 may be in Sanskrit); face D: 24 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This long inscription, of the same high quality and grammatical interest as № 11, records a petition submitted by a vāp Brahmaputra to Jayavīravarman for revalidation of his title to extensive lands and slaves accumulated by his family over the course of several generations. The bulk of the text is devoted to an enumeration of these lands, including seven tracts purchased by the vāp’s elder brother. Toward the end, a royal ālakṣaṇa summarizes the favorable decision of a special commission convened to consider the case. Faces C and D of the inscription are in poor condition.


Catalog Number: K.696

Name: Piédroits of Bantãy Čhmàr

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 97-119, untranslated, hereafter Cœdès; APK I : 343-65. The interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.697B

Name: Stele of Ban Tãt T’ôṅ

Sources: C VII: 94-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: Cœdès (C VII: 95) dates the text from the reign of Īśānavarman II (A.D. 925).

Provenance: Ban Tãt T’ôṅ is located in the amphơ of Yasothˀon, Ubon province, Thailand. The flat, squarish stele recovered from the site bears on face A 20 lines in Sanskrit, on face B 1 line in Sanskrit followed by 27 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: The purpose of this 27-line inscription, written during the reign of Īśānavarman II, is to establish title to certain lands received from Harṣavarman I as a royal benefice by a loñ Myaṅ and to secure the inheritance of those lands by members of his family. Marred by numerous lacunæ, the text is difficult but uncommonly instructive; at the same time, it exemplifies writing not of the first quality.


Catalog Number: K.702B

Name: Stele of Vằt Práḥ Thãt

Sources: C V: 222-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 947 = A.D. 1025)

Conventional date: While the Khmer text opens with Śaka 946, the Sanskrit text (stanza XXI, A: 18-9) gives 947 as the date of the founding of Lakṣmīndrapada; the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 187) therefore gives the latter year.

Provenance: Vằt Práḥ Thãt is located in Tưk Čha, a community somewhere in Kompong Cham province; I am unable to fix its position. A stele found at the site, measuring 1.0 x o.50 meter, bears an inscription of 23 lines in Sanskrit on face A, 2 more lines in Sanskrit and 14 lines in Khmer on face B.

Synopsis: This 16-line inscription records a royal directive from Sūryavarman I validating lands received as a royal benefice by a steṅ ˀ Jaṅghāla (renamed by the sovereign Śrī Lakṣmīndrapaṇḍita) and dedicated by him to three divinities. Witnesses to the delimitation of the land are called for, two tracts of land are defined, seven (or more) others are mentioned, and 29 slaves are listed. The text is well-written and for the most part clear despite lacunæ. It includes two instances of nominative man as well as other points of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.703/1°

Name: Stele of the Sāl Sūṅ

Sources: RS, II, Deuxième édition revue et mise à jour, № XX: 13-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This stele, a large sandstone bloc of unknown provenance, was discovered by Cœdès in 1924 in front of the Sāl Sūṅ (San Sung) in Lopburi, Ayuthaya province, Thailand. It is broken into three pieces, two of which bear what remains of inscriptions on both faces. The two faces of the first inscription comprise about 20 in Khmer, while those of the second inscription comprise 2 lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: The condition of this inscription is such that translation and description are impossible.


Catalog Number: K.705

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Run

Sources: C V: 198-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 934 = A.D. 1012)

Conventional date: C V: 198: ‘Elle est datée de 924 ou 934 ç. (1002 ou 1012 A.D.), le chiffre des dizaines pouvant prêter à discussion, bien que 3 soit plus probable’.

Provenance: The Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Run in question here is located in Kompong Thom province, whereas K.598 (№ 20) is from a sanctuary of the same name in Siem Reap province. In the absence of better maps I cannot place it more precisely. This 11-line inscription is from the south piédroit of the sanctuary’s east portal.

Synopsis: This short inscription records a grant by Sūryavarman I of a sruk and certain foundations to a Tapasvīndrapaṇḍita, with royal leave to reclaim abandoned ricelands. There follow a list of reclaimed fields, ordered by the fortnight, with the productivity of each. The text, the grammatical interest of which is not great, ends in a brief, mildly-worded varaśāpa.


Catalog Number: K.706N

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Práḥ Kô

Sources: C V: 217-20.

Śaka date: (Śaka 935 = A.D. 1013)

Conventional date: The date is uncertain, and may be Śaka 925 (A.D. 1003). Cf. C V: 216 and 218, note 2.

Provenance: The Pràsàt Práḥ Kô in question here is located in the sruk of Kompong Svay, Kompong Thom province; I am not able to fix it precisely. The sanctuary comprises the ruins of three brick towers, this inscription being from the central tower. The south piédroit bears a text consisting of 30 lines in Sanskrit, while the north piédroit bears a text of 34 lines, the first 18 in Khmer followed by 16 ruined lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.708

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Práḥ Kô

Sources: C V: 221.

Śaka date: (Śaka 941 = A.D. 1019)

Conventional date: This year is given in the opening of the text on the north piédroit.

Provenance: The Pràsàt Práḥ Kô in question here is located in the sruk of Kompong Svay, Kompong Thom province; I am not able to fix it precisely. The sanctuary comprises the ruins of three brick towers. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the north tower.

Synopsis: Another ruined inscription, in which only a few details can be recognized.


Catalog Number: K.709

Name: Tà Lơ Fragment14

Sources: C V: 30-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Cœdès locates Trau Tasar in the khằnd of Bàti, Tà Kèv province. It does not appear on my modern maps. A schist stele found at the site has an inscribed surface of o.50 x o.60 meter bearing 8 lines, the first 3 in Sanskrit, the remaining 5 in Khmer. Their condition is such that it is almost pointless to attempt to translate them.

Synopsis: Another ruined inscription from which little coherent meaning can be developed.


Catalog Number: K.711

Name: Bel Fragment

Sources: C VI: 50, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This ruined inscription was recovered in 1932 in the village of Bel in Phnoṃ Sruoč, Kŏṃpoṅ Spư province.

Synopsis: This appears to be a list of 50 slaves from start to finish, not without onomastic value.


Catalog Number: K.712

Name: Fragment from Phum Bel

Sources: C VI: 50-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of phum Bel see № 84, note 2. Found in the village in 1932 is a stele measuring o.72 x o.42 meter bearing an inscription of some 13 lines. Of these only parts of 5 are still legible.

Synopsis: These 5 lines are all that remains legible on the stone. Recorded are a few slaves and 8 yau of cloth given to Śrī Acaleśvara by a lord Īśvarakumāra.


Catalog Number: K.713B

Name: Stele of Práḥ Kô

Sources: C I: 18-31.

Śaka date: (Śaka 815 = A.D. 893)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Located in Siem Reap province, the sanctuary of Práḥ Kô is part of the Roluos group. The stele in question is from the interior of the east gopura of the outer brick wall. Face A comprises 44 lines in Sanskrit dated Śaka 801 (A.D. 879), face B 31 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription lists articles and slaves given by Yaśovarman to two chapels: a ‘north chapel’ (line 15) dedicated to Parameśvara and a ‘south chapel’ (line 16) dedicated to Śrī Pṛthivīndreśvara.


Catalog Number: K.719

Name: Fragment of Popél

Sources: C VI: 52, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Cœdès locates Popél in Tà Kèv province but furnishes nothing more; I fail to find it on modern maps. The inscribed surface of this fragment measures o.45 x o.38 meter and bears 12 lines in Khmer, all illegible at their left and right ends.

Synopsis: Another ruined inscription, again of some onomastic value.


Catalog Number: K.720

Name: Stele of Văt Ph‛u

Sources: C V: 212-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 928 = A.D. 1006)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Văt Ph‛u, located in Basăk province, Laos, is shown on Aymonier, Voyage dans le Laos, I: map facing page 48, as lying 16 kilometers due southeast of the provincial seat and 10 kilometers due west of the right bank of the Mékong. A stele discovered in 1933 between the sanctuary and the priests’ residence bears this inscription on three of its four faces as well as its upper part. Face A is ruined; face B contains the remains of 34 lines in Khmer; face C, better preserved, contains 33 lines in Khmer. The upper part of face D yields 12 lines in Khmer followed by 4 lines in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: Contrasting with the clarity of № 20 is this frustrating inscription of 79 short lines the purport of which is barely discernible. On face B a vāp Śaṃkarātmā and his brothers acquire three tracts of land, found sruk, provide allowances, and sue for royal confirmation of their title. Face C opens with the conviction of a vāp Savāda for an undisclosed offense, while the remainder of C and D record the royal grant of Chok Veṅ to Śaṃkarātmā and a vāp Sadāśiva, while the latter makes a gift of land at Laṅloṅ Veṅ to his two daughters.


Catalog Number: K.721

Name: Fragment from Văt Phʽu

Sources: C V: 295-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date: The inscription dates probably from the reign of Sūryavaman II (A.D. 1113-post 1145).

Provenance: For the location of Văt Phʽu see II, № 21. Recovered from the site in 1933 is this fragment bearing 4 lines at the top (I) and 13 lines below (II).

Synopsis: Another ruined inscription from which little can be gleaned except a few lexical items.


Catalog Number: K.723

Name: Inscription of Thăm Lekh

Sources: C V: 12.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Thăm Lekh is the name of one of a group of three caves on the side of Phnoṃ Vằt Phˀu about 1.5 kilometers north of Vằt Phˀu in Basàk province, Laos. The position of the range of hills on the right bank of the Mékong about 10 kilometers southwest of the town of Basàk is shown by Aymonier, Voyage dans le Laos, I: map facing page 48. The two inscriptions found at the site are engraved on the cave’s ceiling. The text comprises 4 lines in Sanskrit followed by 1 line in Khmer.

Synopsis: A single line with two examples of conjunction pi after kaṃ ‘it is prohibited’.


Catalog Number: K.724

Name: Inscription of Thăm Lekh

Sources: C V: 12.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Thăm Lekh see № 107, note 2.

Synopsis: Another example of the prohibition marker.


Catalog Number: K.726

Name: Stele of Tằṅ Kraṅ

Sources: C V: 75-80; NIC II/III: 204-8 (Ka.40), 209-10 (Ka.42).

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This inscription is has been published twice: first by G. Cœdès, again by Mme Pou. The provenance of GC’s text is the ghum of Tằṅ Kraṅ, khằnd of Čơṅ Prei, Kompong Cham province (C I: 7, note 1), about 50 kilometers due north by east of Phnom-Penh. The provenance of Pou’s two texts is: for Ka.40, Prasat Preah Theat in Roka, Kompong Thom province; for Ka.42, Tuol Areak, in Phum Veal, Kompong Cham province. The stele of Cœdès’s text bears an inscription on three of its faces totaling 2 lines in Sanskrit and 50 lines in Khmer: on face A, 2 lines in Sanskrit, 18 lines in Khmer; on face B 15 lines in Khmer; on the smaller face C, 17 lines in Khmer. Pou, concerned only with inscriptions in the Musée National de Phnom-Penh, takes no account of face c of K.726.

Synopsis: This 50-line inscription is a record of eighteen ricefields bought by individuals unnamed, presumably as gifts to Śrī Bhogeśvara, cited in lines A: 9 and C: 13. The fields are typically identified in terms of the owners from whom they were purchased, usually with an indication of their location and a statement of their barter-price. On face C two yajamāna are mentioned as giving slaves to the divinity and to an unnamed āśrama; a cryptic passage (C: 12-4) indicates that these slaves are to be employed by the children of the donors who serve Śrī Bhogeśvara. The text is well-ordered, for the most part clear, and a good specimen of the language of the period.


Catalog Number: K.728

Name: Inscription D.56 of the Musée de Phnom-Penh

Sources: C V: 83-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This inscription is on an unfinished stele with an inscribed surface 0.45 meter high and 0.70 meter wide, bearing a text of 6 lines. The characters from the nineteenth on are only stippled in, the engraving not being done beyond that point.

Synopsis: This short inscription, clear and instructive, records gifts to Śrī Bhadreśvara by an unnamed headman of Pañcarā. The gifts, to be shared with My Holy High Lord of Vravok, consist of three slaves, a tract of riceland, cattle, and a granary – the contents of this last to be devoted to the divinities as well as the āśrama in Pañcarā. The surviving text ends with a strongly worded admonition but appears to be incomplete.


Catalog Number: K.735

Name: Inscription of Phum Kantôk

Sources: C V: 96.

Śaka date: (Śaka 856 = A.D. 934)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phum Kantôk is located in Kantal province. This inscription of twelve lines, incomplete, is on a slab of fine-grained schist found in a shrine to the nẵk tà in the khaṇḍ of Pô Čĕn Toṅ.

Synopsis: This unfinished inscription of 12 lines records the gift, through the agency of a mratāñ kuruṅ Bhaktivikrama, of 8 slaves and other chattels belonging to a vāp Dīrghāya(□). Several obscurities preclude full comprehension, but the text offers a few grammatical details which supplement our knowledge.


Catalog Number: K.736D

Name: Stele of Vằt Slà Ku

Sources: C V: 306-13.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date: The inscription probably dates from the reign of Sūryavarman II (A.D. 1113-post 1145).

Provenance: Vằt Slà Ku is located east of Ŭdoṅ about 25 kilometers northwest of Phnom-Penh in the sruk of Poñã Lơ (Ponhea Leu, Aymonier’s ‘Pinhalo’), Kandàl province. Found at the site in 1933 was a stone pillar 32 centimeters square, broken and otherwise damaged, bearing an inscription on all four sides. The legible text comprises: face A, 20 lines in Sanskrit; face B, 13 lines in Sanskrit; face C, 17 lines in Sanskrit; face D, 10 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: These 10 lines are what remains of a longer inscription in Khmer describing the founding of a Vaiṣṇavite sanctuary and tapovana at Vraḥ ˀAṃvil by a Śrī Vāgindrapaṇḍita and the grant of the foundation to the latter, probably by Sūryavarman II.


Catalog Number: K.741

Name: Piédroit of Kŭk Pràsàt

Sources: C V: 160-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka 916 = A.D. 994)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Kŭk Pràsàt, known to Aymonier (Le Cambodge, II: 346) as ‘Prasat Kuk’, is located in the neighborhood of Svày Ček, Batdambang province; op.cit., first map facing page 304, shows it 15 kilometers due northeast of Banteay Chhmar, the same distance due south of the Dangrek chain, and about 73 kilometers north-northeast of Sisophon. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the central sanctuary of the group and comprises 21 lines, of which lines 2 to 8 are in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This inscription lists property comprising an endowment to an unnamed sanctuary of Śiva: small articles, musical instruments, cattle, slaves, riceland. Except for structural ambiguities in lines 15-21 the text is devoid of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.742

Name: Piédroit of Kŭk Pràsàt

Sources: C V: 160-3.

Śaka date: (Śaka 916 = A.D. 994)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Kŭk Pràsàt see № 101, note 2. This inscription of 11 lines is, unlike K.741, from the south piédroit of the north tower.

Synopsis: This inscription has the look of being an early version of № 741. It differs fom the latter in lacking the Sanskrit verses and any mention of riceland, while the lists of small articles and slaves are also different.


Catalog Number: K.748

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Vihãr Tràñ

Sources: C V: 17.

Śaka date: (Śaka 535 = A.D. 614)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Thursday, 14 March, A.D. 614, or the eve thereof, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 3).

Provenance: Vằt Vihãr Tràñ is a modern temple located in sruk Kandal Stung, Kandal province, about 10 kilometers south of Phnom-Penh. This inscription of 16 lines is from an ancient piédroit found at the temple during the 1932-33 season, and consists of 4 lines in Sanskrit followed by 12 lines in Khmer. Cœdès’s transcription is not followed by a translation.

Synopsis: This short text of twelve lines contains not a single grammatical sentence but is not without lexical and onomastic interest. It consists of two lists of ple, one list of caṃdak, and mention of domestic animals and two economically important trees. Neither donor nor divinity or other recipient is named. The Khmer text is preceded by two Sanskrit śloka (four lines) giving the date.


Catalog Number: K.749

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Ak Yoṃ

Sources: C V: 57.

Śaka date: (Śaka 596 = A.D. 674)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Saturday, 10 June, A.D. 674, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 5), calculated on the basis of a new reading of the year as Śaka 59[6]. Cœdès (C V: 57) observed that the text ‘débute par une date qui doit être 539 ou 639 ç.’, while the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 193) gives 639 as the more probable.

Provenance: Located in Siem Reap province, Pràsàt Ak Yoṃ is a 9th-century sanctuary on the south bank of the Báráy Occidental. Cœdès (C V: 57) observes that it was ‘partiellement enfoui dans l’ancienne chaussée correspondant à l’entrée occidentale du premier Angkor, puis dans la digue méridionale du Báráy Occidental’. It was not investigated until 1933 and is hence not reported in Aymonier, Le Cambodge, III. The site has been identified by some historians with the ancient Purandarapura, by others with ancient Amarendrapura. This inscription of 15 lines in Khmer is from the south piédroit of the east portal of the main sanctuary and, as Cœdès describes it, covers a surface o.65 meter high by o.45 meter wide.

Synopsis: This inscription, the text of which is interrupted by many lacunæ, opens with the gift of slaves, livestock and cloth to Śrī Gambhīreśvara made by a lord Kīrtigaṇa. A certain tāñ Gāy is appointed to manage the endowment. The lord also gives a few slaves to two of his sons and the lady, who appears to serve at the sanctuary of the same divinity. The text includes a string of some complexity and valuable grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.752

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Ak Yoṃ

Sources: C V: 59.

Śaka date: (Śaka 923 = A.D. 1001)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Ak Yoṃ see Manual of pre-Angkorian Khmer, I, № 31, note 2. This inscription of one line was found on a navagraha (‘nine planets’) stone from the southeast annex to the main sanctuary.

Synopsis: A one-line inscription recording an offering by an unnamed steṅ ˀ to Śrī Gambhīreśvara.


Catalog Number: K.753

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Ak Yoṃ

Sources: C V: 58-9, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka 626 = A.D. 705)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is 704/705 (Billard, 7). The date was for a time in doubt, and Briggs (46) was of the opinion that it might date from A.D. 609 and thus be the earliest pre-Angkorian text recovered so far, while C V: 58 and the “Liste générale” (C VIII: 193) give Śaka 626 (A.D. 704).

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Ak Yoṃ see № 20, note 2.

Synopsis: The condition of this inscription makes analysis and translation impossible. It is included here both for its place in time and to exhibit the problems it poses for anyone seeking to exploit it.


Catalog Number: K.754B

Name: Stele of Kôk Svày Ček

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Etudes cambodgiennes. XXXII. — La plus ancienne inscription en pāli du Cambodge,” in BEFEO, XXXVI (1936): 14-21 (hereafter Cœdès); APK I: 282-89.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1230 = A.D. 1308)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Cœdès states that this stele was found in 1933 in Vằt Kôk Khpŏs, located in Siem Reap province just south of the Bàrày Occidental and about 800 meters south of Vằt Pràsàt; it is said to have come from a small hill named Kôk Svày Ček, lying some 3 kilometers to the southwest. See note 33 below. Face A of the stone bears 20 lines of text in Pāli, while face B has 31 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: Another inscription of the first quality, moderately difficult but free of lacunæ, and offering the reader many a tasty morsel of grammar. It records the installation of an image of the Buddha by Śrīndravarman, the creation of a sruk Śrīndraratnagrāma, and gifts made to the Buddhist community of land, slaves, cattle, and small articles.


Catalog Number: K.755

Name: Buddha of Vằt Čhnaḥ

Sources: C VI: 55, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This 2-line inscription is from the base of an image of a seated Buddha found in a Prei Krabàs, which I fail to find on my maps.

Synopsis: A short slavelist followed by an equational sentence, not without value.


Catalog Number: K.756

Name: Marker of Sraṅ

Sources: C VI: 319.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie-xiiie siècles = A.D. 1178-1377)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Sraṅ see the pre-Angkorian volume, № 132, note 2.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.757

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Bànak

Sources: C VII: 101.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The modern temple of Vằt Bànak is situated in the sruk of Bàrày in Kompong Thom province. This text is from an ancient piédroit found at the site.

Synopsis: The first 17 lines of this inscription consist of a slavelist which Cœdès did not see fit to transcribe. Reproduced here are the last 3 lines, recording five tracts of riceland.


Catalog Number: K.759

Name: Vằt Aṅ Bĕṅ Čak Fragment

Sources: C VI: 56, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: These ruined 14 lines are what remains of an inscription on a schist slab found at Vằt Bĕṅ Čak in Kandàl province.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.760

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Kdĕi Skie

Sources: C V: 115-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date: The Sanskrit text indicates that the inscription dates from the reign of Rājendravarman (A.D. 944-968).

Provenance: Vằt Kdĕi Skie is located in Trapèk, sruk of Kompong Trapek, Prei Veng province, some 25 kilometers due north of the frontier and about 30 kilometers east of the Mékong. On the south piédroit is this inscription consisting of 12 lines in Sanskrit, 24 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription records the boundaries of a number of tracts of land belonging to five sanctuaries. My rendering of the last three passages is provisional. The structure of the other passages can be recognized from the translations, making description superfluous.


Catalog Number: K.764

Name: Piédroit of Vằt Aṅ Pisĕi

Sources: C VI: 57, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: I am unable to fix the precise location of Vằt Aṅ Pisĕi, somewhere in Kŏṃpoṅ Spư province.

Synopsis: Ten ruined lines are all that is legible on a schist fragment found at this site, and comprise a list of female and male slaves.


Catalog Number: K.765

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Nãṅ Khmau

Sources: C V: 53.

Śaka date: (Śaka 60x = A.D. 679)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is Monday, 18 April, A.D. 679, 04:30 hours, by the Julian calendar. The text is dated in its first Sanskrit stanza, together with the position of the planets, but the third digit is illegible.

Provenance: Pràsàt Nãṅ Khmau is located in sruk Samrong, Tà Kèv province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 192 shows it 6 kilometers west of Phnom Chisor, 28 kilometers due northwest of Angkor Borei. A description of the site is given in op.cit., 183 sq. This inscription, found in 1933 on an ancient schist piédroit 0.75 meters high and o.48 meters wide, comprises 13 lines, the first 6 in Sanskrit, the remaining 7 in Khmer.

Synopsis: This short, damaged inscription records gifts to a Puṣkareśvara, probably an aspect of Śiva, made by one Mahānukṛtavikhyāta: slaves, paddy, and four or more ricefields.


Catalog Number: K.766

Name: Fragment of Vằt Tralêṅ Kèṅ

Sources: C VI: 58, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The modern temple of Vằt Tralêṅ Kèṅ is located in Loṅvêk in Kompong Chhnang province. A fragment of a sandstone piédroit found on its premises in 1933 bears the remains of 7 lines of text in Khmer.

Synopsis: These 7 lines are all that remains legible of a sandstone piédroit found at this site.


Catalog Number: K.772

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Bĕṅ

Sources: C VII: 104-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: C VI: 212 places Pràsàt Bĕṅ in the vicinity of Čikrèṅ in Kŏṃpoṅ Thoṃ province, though the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 196) locates it in Siem Rãp province. See the pre-Angkorian volume, № 100, note 2. This inscription of 15 lines is from the north piédroit of the north sanctuary of Pràsàt Bĕṅ Sud. The first 5 lines are rough-hewn.

Synopsis: A list of 27 slaves with no children. The rationale of their grouping is not dis-cernible.


Catalog Number: K.774

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Prei Kmeṅ

Sources: C IV: 64-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 911 = A.D. 989)

Conventional date: New readings by M. Claude Jacques date lines 1-7 to Śaka 860? (A.D. 938?), lines 8-13 to Śaka 917 (A.D. 995). I follow the dates as given in the ‘Liste générale …’ (C VIII: 197).

Provenance: Located in Siem Reap province, Pràsàt Prei Kmeṅ is a sanctuary near the southwest corner of the West Baray. This text of 13 lines is from the south piédroit.

Synopsis: This unfinished inscription is laid out in three parts giving the history of landed property and chattels assigned to a divinity whose name is obliterated. The text, albeit frustrating, contains numerous useful points of grammar.


Catalog Number: K.779

Name: Conch from Práḥ Khằn

Sources: C VII: 106.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1118 = A.D. 1196)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The bronze conch (for lustral water) bearing this 2-line text was found in 1929 in the north side-entry of the east outer gopura of the Práḥ Khằn, just off the northeast corner of Angkor Thom. Cœdès’s transcription is without line-numbers.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.780

Name: Piédroit of Prei Čŭm

Sources: C VI: 150-1, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: C VI: 150: ‘Cette inscription ne doit donc pas être antérieure au milieu du xe siècle’, and probably dates from the reign of Rājendravarman (A.D. 944-968).

Provenance: Prei Čŭm is a community in Thbóṅ Khmŭm, Kŏṃpoṅ Čàm province, not shown on my maps. A piédroit recovered at the site in 1934 bears an inscription of 34 lines with an additional 12 lines disposed in two columns along its left side. I label these I and II respectively.

Synopsis: No coherent meaning can be drawn from this ruined inscription but it is not without lexical and onomastic value. Cœdès remarks (C VI: 150) that ‘Sa traduction est impossible, mais ce qui reste montre que c’était une charte de donation à un Çivaliṅga et à une Bhagavatī, conçue dans la forme habituelle’.


Catalog Number: K.782N

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Sralau

Sources: C I: 221-6.

Śaka date: (Śaka 993 = A.D. 1071)

Conventional date: The date, so given in the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 197), is from lines 9-10.

Provenance: Pràsàt Sralau, presumably the site of the ancient Vraḥ Daṃnap, is a group of three ruined towers in the sruk of Pûok, Siem Reap province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 400, shows it situated 19 kilometers north-northwest of the provincial seat. The piédroits of the east porch of one of the towers bears an inscription recovered in 1934: south piédroit bears 32 lines in Sanskrit, the north piédroit bears 24 lines in Khmer of which the last 12 are badly damaged.

Synopsis: As far as it can be recognized, the purpose of this inscription from the reign of Harṣavarman III is to add to the Sanskrit text genealogical information on Śrī Narapatīndravarman (My Holy High Lord of Vrai Kanloṅ) and his nephew of the same title, who rebuilt the devastated sruk of Vraḥ Daṃnap.


Catalog Number: K.783 and K.570

Name: Inscriptions of Bantãy Srĕi

Sources: K.783: BEFEO, XXXIII (1933): 531; K.570: C I: 144-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 891 = A.D. 969)

Conventional date:

Provenance: On the location of Bantãy Srĕi see № 64, note 2. K.783 (A.D. 978-1077) comprises 2 lines in Sanskrit followed by 7 lines in Khmer and is from the south piédroit of the east portal of gopura I (west). K.570, comprising 22 lines in Sanskrit and 16 lines continuing the Khmer text of K.783, was discovered in 1932 at the base of the south piédroit of the inner portal of the east porch of gopura III (east). In C I: 144-5 Cœdès gives a new reading of K.783 together with the text of K.570.

Synopsis: This inscription records an endowment by Jayavarman V to Śrī Tribhuvanamaheśvara. The exposition of its provisions is interrupted by numerous lacunæ which make full comprehension impossible. The most that can be said is that text offers the scholar valuable experience in coping with documents of this degraded quality.


Catalog Number: K.784

Name: Pràsàt Aṅ Práḥ Thãt Fragment

Sources: C VI: 59, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Aṅ Práḥ Thãt see № 112, note 2.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.785

Name: Fragment from Pràsàt Aṅ Práḥ Thãt

Sources: C VI: 59, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Aṅ Práḥ Thãt is located in the khŭ of Alaṅ, Kŏṃpoṅ Spư province.

Synopsis: These 3 lines are from a piece of stone 20 cm high and 12.5 cm wide.


Catalog Number: K.787

Name: Fragment from Vằt Aṅ Práḥ Pãy

Sources: C VI: 60, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: I have not located Vằt Aṅ Práḥ Pãy, somewhere in Kandàl province.

Synopsis: These 4 lines are from a piece broken off from a piédroit found at the temple.


Catalog Number: K.788

Name: Fragment from Vằt Aṅ Srĕi

Sources: C VI: 61, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Aṅ Srĕi is located in Saṃroṅ Toṅ, Kŏṃpoṅ Thoṃ province.

Synopsis: These 9 lines are borne on the right half of a piece broken off from a piédroit recovered from the vicinity of the temple.


Catalog Number: K.790

Name: Stele of Unknown Provenance

Sources: C V: 71.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: As Cœdès describes it (C V: 71), this stele, measuring o.70 x o.28 meter, is from the private collection of a former Minister of Justice, S.E. de Lopez (Okñà Yômrãč). The inscription it bears comprises 18 lines, all legible except the last.

Synopsis: This inscription records the names of 12 slaves and 10 tracts of riceland given to an unnamed divinity. It offers one passage of grammatical interest and a few data of lexical or onomastic importance.


Catalog Number: K.791

Name: Fragment from Phnoṃ Bantãy Nãṅ

Sources: C VI: 316.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This fragment is attributed to Phnoṃ Bantãy Nãṅ, located in Batdambang province in the vicinity of Moṅkolbórĕi, but its exact provenance is unconfirmed.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.795

Name: Pedestal from Vằt Kandàl

Sources: C VI: 240, untranslated; new reading received 2 July 2007 by courtesy of M. Dominique Soutif, hereafter DS.

Śaka date: (Śaka 942 = A.D. 1020)

Conventional date: The “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 199) gives the date 94x based on Cœdès’s earlier reading.

Provenance: Vằt Kandàl, not on my maps, is located somewhere in Batdambang province.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.808

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Ôlok

Sources: C IV:37, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Ôlok is a set of four ancient towers forming part of the Rolûos group in Siem Reap province. Cœdès (loc.cit.) places it 300 meters west of the outer moat of Bàkoṅ and the same distance south of Pràsàt Kandòl Dờm. A slab of stone found in the south tower bears this inscription of 11 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This short inscription reports gifts to an aspect of Śiva by a poñ Rudra as well as gifts to a Śrī Naimiśeśvara by a poñ Mitrasiṃha. The gifts include slaves, cattle, a plantation, and riceland.


Catalog Number: K.809N

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Kandòl Dờm

Sources: C I: 37-46.

Śaka date: (Śaka 80□ = A.D. 878/87)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Kandòl Dờm (Nord) lies about 300 meters west of the outer wall of Pràḥ Kò, in the Roluos group. The present text, 49 lines in Khmer, is from the north piédroit of the central sanctuary of the east range. It is preceded on the south piédroit by 48 lines in Sanskrit. The chief interest of the inscription is its attribution to Śivasoma, who figures in K.235 (D: 7, sq.) as guru to Indravarman. The Sanskrit text gives genealogical facts on Śivasoma, who was a grandson of Jayendrādhipativarman, a maternal uncle of Jayavarman II.

Synopsis: This inscription commemorates the setting up by the lord Śivasoma of an image of a divinity whose name is obliterated, the gift of Indravarman, and records the names of 324 persons assigned to its service. It is noteworthy that the namelists include 19 names (in 35 occurrences) which follow the pre-Angkorian orthographic tradition; these contrast with 22 names (25 occurrences) conforming to the Angkorian tradition. The text is of minor grammatical interest despite its length but is an good source of onomastic data.


Catalog Number: K.810

Name: Fragment of Tûol Mŭṅ

Sources: C VI: 62, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Mŭṅ, cited as Tûol Môṅ in the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 200), is located in Kandàl province. Found on the site is a piece of stone broken off from a piédroit bearing these remains of 5 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: These 4 ruined lines are part of a slavelist.


Catalog Number: K.811

Name: Fragment of Nẵk Tà Tras

Sources: C VI: 63, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vi-vii siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The modern site of Nẵk Tà Tras is in Kandàl province, but the particulars of its location are wanting. Found in 1933 was a fragment about o.35 meter high and o.42 meter wide, bearing these remains of 8 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: These 8 lines appear to report the gift of riceland, slaves and small articles to one or more divinities by three donors whose names are illegible.


Catalog Number: K.814C

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Kôk Pô

Sources: BEFEO, XXXVII (1937): 413; APK II: 115.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1018 = A.D. 1096)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Kôk Pô see I, № 78, note 2. This inscription of 6 lines is from piédroit IV of sanctuary B.

Synopsis: A six-line inscription from the reign of Jayavaman VI, the full sense of which is obscured by one word (teṅ).


Catalog Number: K.814E

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Kôk Pô

Sources: BEFEO, XXXVII: 404-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 926 = A.D. 1004)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Kôk Pô see I, № 78, note 2. This inscription, consisting of 77 lines in Khmer, is from the east piédroit (V) of one of the inner portals of Sanctuary B.

Synopsis: This inscription is one of the best specimens of the language of the period and should be read and reread by every student aspiring to mastery of Old Khmer grammar. It records the purchase of several tracts of land at Ārāma by a khloñ vala of Travāṅ Brāhmaṇa and validation of his title by the sovereign. Lines 39-49 mention six additional pieces of land bought by the khloñ vala, while lines 49-77 describe confirmation of his title to these new acquisitions.


Catalog Number: K.814W/2°

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Kôk Pô

Sources: BEFEO, XXXVII (1937): 404.

Śaka date: (Śaka 926 = A.D. 1004)

Conventional date: I take the date from the ‘Liste générale … ‘ (C VIII: 201).

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Kôk Pô see I, № 78, note 2. The full inscription consists of 55 lines in Sanskrit, 8 lines in Khmer, and 6 more lines in Sanskrit. It is from the west piédroit (IV) of an inner portal of Sanctuary B.

Synopsis: These eight lines constitute an interlude between two parts of a 61-line Sanskrit inscription and cite three provisions: one placing a certain āśrama under the direction of a purohita, one making an endowment of a sruk and slaves to Śvetadvīpa, and another assigning that endowment to the donor’s younger brother.


Catalog Number: K.816

Name: Inscription of Robaṅ Romãs

Sources: C VI: 64, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This inscription, only o.13 meter high and o.75 meter wide, is from tower B of a monument adjacent to Robaṅ Romãs in Kompong Thom province.

Synopsis: These four lines record the names of some 18 slaves with 11 children given to Śrī Prajāśeśvara by a donor whose name is illegible.


Catalog Number: K.817

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Ampĭl

Sources: C V: 200-1).

Śaka date: (Śaka 924 = A.D. 1002)

Conventional date: See C V: 200 for Cœdès’s remarks on this date.

Provenance: Pràsàt Ampĭl is situated in the sruk of Chi Kreng, Siem Reap province, 50 or 60 kilometers east of the provincial capital, though its exact location has not been ascertained. This inscription of 19 lines is from the north piédroit of the central sanctuary’s portal.

Synopsis: This inscription records six slaves and several tracts of land given to the High Lord of the World at the sanctuary of Yogīśvara in Liṅgapura, which are gifts of a Holy High Lord of Chok Phlāṅ, his family and associates. It is of particular interest on account of its many lacunæ, some of which I have filled in at considerable risk, and is a good source of grammatical details illustrating the language of the period.


Catalog Number: K.818

Name: Fragment of Pràsàt Khlẵṅ

Sources: C VI: 65, not translated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Khlẵṅ is a brick tower in the sruk of Čikrèṅ, Siem Reap province. Cœdès locates it 300 meters north of the road from Kompong Thom to Siem Reap. The south piédroit of the portal bears the remains of a 15-line inscription in Khmer.

Synopsis: Despite the condition of this inscription, it can at least be said that lines 1-9 report gifts to Śrī Bhadreśvara and end in an admonition while lines 10-15 have to do with another divinity who is to share his means of subsistence with Śrī Bhadreśvara.


Catalog Number: K.824

Name: Pillar of Pràsàt Thoṃ (Kòḥ Ker)

Sources: C I: 52, lines 1-4 only; NIC II/III: 96-7, hereafter Pou.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Kòḥ Ker see I, № 19, note 2. This 47-line inscription is from a pillar near the gable in the west row of the north porch of the south hall (enceinte IV).

Synopsis: This inscription records the offering of some 128 slaves by the reigning sovereign to Śrī Trailokyādhipatīśvara.


Catalog Number: K.827

Name: Piédroit of Bantãy Čhmàr

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 97-119, untranslated; APK I : 343-65. The interpolation is by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.829

Name: Piédroit of the Bàkoṅ

Sources: C IV: 43-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date: The inscription dates from the reign of Sūryavarman I (A.D. 1001-1050); cf. C IV: 43, note liminaire.

Provenance: The Bàkoṅ, located in Siem Reap province, is a temple complex lying a short distance south of Lolei, about 12 kilometers due east of the provincial seat and 13 kilometers due southeast of Angkor Vat. This inscription is on the north piédroit of the north portal of the pavilion adjacent to the main temple, and comprises 22 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: The purpose of this inscription is obscured by the condition of its first 11 lines, but it seems to be mainly concerned with the restoration and governance of certain āśrama which have been deserted. The legible parts of the text offer instructive grammatical and lexical data.


Catalog Number: K.830

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Dà

Sources: C V: 278-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1028 = A.D. 1106)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Dà is part of the Aṅkor Bórĕi group in Tà Kèv province. Found on the site is a small stele o.40 meter high by o.30 meter wide bearing an inscription of 13 lines in Khmer. As Cœdès describes it, the right edge of the stone is missing while the lower part is broken into several fragments.

Synopsis: A short inscription, much damaged, recording the gift of land and small articles to the sanctuary at Jeṅ Go by a tapasvin of the Śivasthāna, probably the ˀ in line 7 who donates a royal benefice to the High Lord of the World Śrī Viśvarūpa.


Catalog Number: K.831

Name: Inscription of Tûol Kul

Sources: C V: 147-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 890 = A.D. 968)

Conventional date: This text dates from the last year of the reign of Rājendravarman or from the first year of the reign of Jayavarman V.

Provenance: The “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 203) places Tûol Kul in Batdambang province, whereas C V: 147 places it in ‘la province de Môṅ au sud du Grand Lac’, by which is presumably meant the sruk of Mong Russey. It appears to lie about 44 kilometers southeast of Batdambang and 5 kilometers east-northeast of Mong Russey. This inscription of 30 lines was found on a stone 1 meter high and o.37 meter wide.

Synopsis: This inscription records a royal directive transmitted through channels to a vāp Ānandana instructing him to ascertain the particulars of an endowment to Śiva made 44 years earlier by a vāp Myaṅ. What follows the opening passage (lines 3-10) summarizes the facts established by the vāp Ānandana. The inscription is noteworthy for the next passage (lines 10-21), which constitutes a structural unit reporting four provisions of the original endowment. This passage reflects the chancery or legal style of the period and offers the scholar good exercise in following the concatenation of ideas.


Catalog Number: K.832B

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Tasar Sdằṃ

Sources: C V: 91-5

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: The inscription appears to date from the reign of Yaśovarman (A.D. 889-900).

Provenance: Pràsàt Tasar Sdằṃ is located in Pûok, Siem Reap province. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: first map facing page 400, shows a ‘Sâsâr Sdâm’, about 23 kilometers due northwest of the Bàrày Occidental, with which it is probably to be identified. An inscription found at the site bears 24 lines in Sanskrit on face A while face B, all in Khmer, consists of a first line with the remainder of the text disposed in three columns occupying 45, 43 and 43 lines.

Synopsis: This inscription enumerates slaves and allowances assigned to the service of a defunct queen Jayamāheśvarī by a Śrī Jayāyudha. The slavelists require no description, while the condition of the stone from column 3, line 16, precludes description. The text is of onomastic value but of little grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.842B

Name: Stele of Bantãy Srĕi

Sources: C I: 147-56.

Śaka date: (Śaka 890 = A.D. 968)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Bantãy Srĕi, the ancient Īśvarapura, is the modern name of a temple complex in Siem Reap province completed in A.D. 967 about 10 kilometers northeast of the East Baray. The stele bearing this inscription was found in the south wing of the main room of gopura IV (east), and measures 1.07 x o.63 x o.20 meters. Face A comprises 28 lines in Sanskrit, face B 16 additional lines in Sanskrit, followed by 11 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription records a royal directive announcing the setting up of an image of Śrī Tribhuvanamaheśvara by a vraḥ guru of Īśvarapura and its union with Śrī Bhadreśvara in Liṅgapura. Various provisions are mentioned for the maintenance of the divinity, in particular for the apportionment of merit to accrue to future sovereigns and others having jurisdiction over the image. The text is of moderate grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.843

Name: Stele of Trapẵṅ Dón Mãs

Sources: C VII: 109-19.

Śaka date: (Śaka 947 = A.D. 1025)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Cœdès locates Trapẵṅ (or Tûol) Dón Mãs in the khum of Čha Čhuk, sruk of Puok, Siem Reap province. A stele found at the site in 1935 is a boundary-marker 1.10 meter high, the two larger faces o.45 meter wide, the two smaller faces o.40 meter. The stone, broken into three pieces, bears an inscription of 148 lines in Khmer: face A, 36 lines; face B, 35 lines; face C, 32 lines; face D, 45 lines.

Synopsis: As far as it can be understood, this long inscription records the pious acts and acquisitions of a steṅ ˀ of Stuk Ciñcāñ as approved by Sūryavarman I. What might have been a singularly instructive text is in an unfortunate state of preservation and large parts of it cannot be read with more than partial understanding. Re-examination of the stele and estampages made from it may or may not confirm the many lacunæ I have filled in. The text as it stands offers a few lexical challenges but is of no more than ordinary grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.844

Name: Stele of Kŭk Aṅkằñ

Sources: C V: 173-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe-xe siècles = A.D. 878-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Kŭk Aṅkằñ, not shown on my maps, is located in the ghuṃ of Čha Čhuk, sruk of Pûok, Siem Reap province, some distance east of the provincial seat. A stele found at the site has an inscribed surface 45 centimeters high by 36 centimeters wide, bearing 20 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: A 20-line text of limited interest, recording the installation of two śivaliṅga by a steṅ whose name is obliterated and giving the boundaries of land dedicated to their support.


Catalog Number: K.845

Name: Stele of Prei Yãṅ

Sources: C V: 186-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe-xe siècles = A.D. 878-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Prei Yãṅ, not shown on my maps, is located in the ghuṃ of Prei Čruk, sruk of Pûok, Siem Reap province. A stele found at the site has an inscribed surface 35 centimeters high and 50 centimeters wide, bearing 18 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: Bewildering at first sight, the organization of this inscription can be discerned as soon as it is broken up into logical parts. Cœdès opines, no doubt correctly, that Prei Yãṅ comprised three towers and that the slaves, land and other property referred to were assigned to the central (kantāl) and south (dakṣiṇa) towers. The text is otherwise unremarkable.


Catalog Number: K.847

Name: Môṅ River Statue

Sources: C VI: 167.

Śaka date: (Śaka 892 = A.D. 970)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This text is from a bronze statue found in the Môṅ River, Batdambang province.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.848

Name: Piédroit of Kôk Svày Prãhm

Sources: C I: 187-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 891 = A.D. 969)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Located in Siem Reap province about 20 kilometers due east of the town of the same name, Kôk (or Pràsàt) Svày Prãhm is the modern name of a ruined monument which formed part of the Roluos group and was hence situated in ancient Hariharālaya. This inscription of 13 lines was found in 1936 on the south piédroit of the portal of the central sanctuary.

Synopsis: This inscription reports a royal directive issued by Jayavarman V but the purpose of the directive is obscured by important lacunæ in the opening passage, the structure of which is uncertain.


Catalog Number: K.850

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Bàyàṅ

Sources: C I: 268-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Phnoṃ Bàyàṅ see I, № 52, note 2.

Synopsis: What might have been an inscription of moderate value is vitiated by lacunæ at key points. The literary quality of the text is inferior to what we have come to expect, but it at least places on record a number of lexical items meriting investigation. To the grammarian its main interest is its amusing fondness for .


Catalog Number: K.852

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Bàyàṅ

Sources: C I: 267-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1029 = A.D. 1107)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Bàyàṅ, the ancient Śivapura, is located in Tà Kèv province, probably in the sruk of Kirivong. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 160, shows it on the Vietnam frontier about 25 kilometers southwest of Chau Doc. The stele bearing this 12-line inscription was found lying on the ground near the southeast corner of the sanctuary’s outer wall.

Synopsis: This short inscription records the installation of an image of the High Lord of the World by Śrī Dharaṇīndravarman and provisions made for its maintenance. The text includes (lines 10-1) one matter of grammatical importance.


Catalog Number: K.855

Name: Fragment from Phnoṃ Sruoč

Sources: C V: 314.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Phnoṃ Sruoč is located on Phnoṃ Kulên in Siem Reap province a good distance north of Aṅkor Thoṃ. The south piédroit of the monument on it bears this inscription of which only 3 lines in Khmer are still legible.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.867

Name: Fragment from the Mébŏn Oriental

Sources: C VI: 152.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: The text appears to date from the reign of Rājendravarman (A.D. 944-968).

Provenance: The East Mébŏn is located in the Bàrày Oriental about 6.5 kilometers east of Aṅkor Thoṃ. This inscription, found in 1936, is from édifice A3.

Synopsis: Six lines of a ruined inscription from which no coherent meaning can be drawn.


Catalog Number: K.868

Name: Stele of Tûol Daṅ Khčàs

Sources: C VI: 170-2.

Śaka date: (Śaka 896 = A.D. 974)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Daṅ Khčàs is a site with three sanctuaries located in Sisophon province. The stele is a block 0.75 meter high and o.35 meter wide found in 1930 (C II: 620 or 1936 (C VI: 170) by H. Mauger or Henri Marchal; it consists of 39 lines. See my Manual of Angkorian Khmer, I, № 71, for the composite of K.444, K.868 and K.175.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.872N

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Bĕṅ Vîen

Sources: C V: 97-104.

Śaka date: (Śaka 868 = A.D. 946)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Bĕṅ Vîen see № 21, note 2. This inscription is on the east face of the north piédroit.

Synopsis: As has been said, the two faces of K.872 form a chronicle of gifts by a succession of sovereigns to a divinity known as Vraḥ Kamrateṅ (or Kaṃsteñ) ˀAñ ta Śakti The gifts registered on this north face include land and land revenues.


Catalog Number: K.872S

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Bĕṅ Vîen

Sources: C V: 100-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka 859 = A.D. 937)

Conventional date: I take it upon myself to assign this inscription to the date it shows in line 20, on the assumption that its four parts were written in succession; for purposes of grammatical description this seems preferable to leaving it undated. The “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 209) assigns it to Śaka ixe siècle.

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Bĕṅ Vîen see № 21, note 2. This inscription of 27 lines is from the east face of the south piédroit.

Synopsis: The two faces of K.872 form a chronicle of gifts by a succession of sovereigns to a divinity known as Vraḥ Kamrateṅ (or Kaṃsteṅ) ˀAñ ta Śakti. This inscription of 27 short lines records gifts of ricefields by four defunct sovereigns. Lacunæ make perfect comprehension out of the question, but because of its tight organization the text is generally clear. It offers little of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.873

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Bĕṅ Vîen

Sources: C V: 104-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka 843 = A.D. 921)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Bĕṅ Vîen is a brick tower now in ruins located in the sruk of Sotr Nikum, Siem Reap province. This inscription of 17 lines is from a stele found on the threshold of the east entry into the sanctuary.

Synopsis: This short inscription was ordered by an unnamed sovereign to record his gift to an unnamed divinity of ricelands and land revenues. Of minor grammatical interest, it is a good source of toponyms.


Catalog Number: K.877

Name: Fragments from Tûol Rolãṅ Ken

Sources: C VI: 66.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècle = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Rolãṅ Ken is a low hill in the sruk of Kandàl Stưṅ in Kandàl province. Found on the site in 1937 was a large schist piédroit measuring 2 meters by o.65 meter bearing an inscription in Khmer. Three of five fragments of the text are partially legible.

Synopsis: The first fragment records the gift of slaves and riceland to a Śrī Bhaṭārāditya, possibly to another divinity as well, by a donor whose name is illegible. The second fragment appears to be a continuation of the list of ricefields, together with a few more slaves, a longish list of small articles including cult objects, another ricefield, and a granary. The third fragment adds to the foregoing a plantation, coconut and areca palms, a garden, and cattle.


Catalog Number: K.878

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Kŭk Pradak

Sources: C V: 88-90.

Śaka date: (Śaka 820 = A.D. 898)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Kŭk Pradak is situated in Batdambang province about 15 kilometers due south of Mongkol Borey. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the sanctuary’s entry.

Synopsis: In this inscription Yaśovarman grants two tracts of land and a few slaves to a chief lord Rudra, who dedicates them to the divinity Śrī Rudrasvāmi and makes a small endowment to the divinity Śrī Yaśodharavṛṣadhvaja which includes slaves in Bhadrapattana. It ends in a routine admonition. The text is well-ordered, clear, and an excellent source of grammatical as well as lexical and onomastic detail.


Catalog Number: K.879

Name: Piédroit of East Pràsàt Snèṅ

Sources: C V: 235-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 963 = A.D. 1041)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Snèṅ (Est), as Cœdès notes, is a group of three brick sanctuaries in Batdambang province lying 8 kilometers west of Bànon (Pāṇa’n). Aymonier, Le Cambodge, II: second map facing page 304, shows both the pràsàt and Bànon on the left bank of the Stưṅ Saṅkè, 15 kilometers due south of the provincial seat. This inscription, recovered in 1937, is from a piédroit in the south tower which had been re-used as a lintel. Measuring 1.3 x o.37 meters, it is missing about five characters on the right end of each line. The text comprises 2 lines in Sanskrit and 34 lines in Khmer. Except as noted, all interpolations are by Cœdès.

Synopsis: This inscription records the names of 174 male and female slaves dedicated to the service of the High Lord of the World at Chpār Ransi by a Śrī Samarasiṃhavarman, a Śrī Kavīndravijaya and associates. Three more male slaves are given to the same divinity the following year. The text contains little of grammatical interest but is a mine of ono-mastic data.


Catalog Number: K.880

Name: Inscription from Sŭrĭn

Sources: C VI: 153.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: The text appears to date from the reign of Rājendravarman (A.D. 944-968) or the early years of the reign of Jayavarman V (A.D. 968-1001).

Provenance: Sŭrĭn is located in northeast Thailand on the right bank of a tributary to the Mae Nam Mun, roughly 50 kilometers due south of the latter, rather less that distance north of the Dangrek escarpment. An estampage of this 10-line inscription was sent to Cœdès from Bangkok without indication of its recovery. It consists of 6 lines in Khmer, 2 lines in Sanskrit, and 2 more lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: The condition of this fragment, like many another, obscures its meaning and rules out the possibility of description.


Catalog Number: K.884

Name: Inscription on an Image of the Buddha

Sources: C VI: 69.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: An image found in 1938 in the village of Trapẵṅ Vêṅ, Tra Ninh province, Vietnam, bears a name on three petals of the lotus forming the image’s seat. Cœdès (loc. cit.) opines that the name is that of the one who cast the image.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.885

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Phum Phu

Sources: C V: 150-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka 890 = A.D. 968)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Located in the sruk of Sotr Nikom, Siem Reap province, Pràsàt Phum Phu (written Phum Pu at C V: 150 but Phum Phu at C VIII: 210) is a group of four ancient towers lying some 15 kilometers east of Roluos. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the south sanctuary of the east row and comprises 13 lines incised on a surface o.42 meter high x o.30 meter wide. Line 13 is a Sanskrit śloka laying a curse on anyone who removes the property.

Synopsis: A 12-line inscription recording settlement of litigation over a certain ricefield, an order by a High Lord of Goparasa for its delimitation, and its assignment to Śrī Trailokyanātha of Jyotīśa□□□□. It is to be regretted that lacunæ obscure the details of the litigation.


Catalog Number: K.886

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Phum Pu

Sources: C V: 151-2.

Śaka date: (Śaka 824 = A.D. 902)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Phum Pu is located in Siem Reap province among the Roluos group, and consists of four tower sanctuaries. This inscription is from the south piédroit of the second tower. The entire right side of the stone is broken off, leaving the content of the 10-line text barely discernible.

Synopsis: This short, badly damaged inscription defies coherent interpretation but is not without value as a source of lexical and onomastic data. Its chief grammatical lesson is the inversion of the subject after existential mān.


Catalog Number: K.897

Name: Inscription of Vằt Kdĕi Run

Sources: C VI: 320.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Kdĕi Run, not shown on my maps, is located in Siem Reap province.

Synopsis: A 1-line inscription on what is probably a boundary-marker.


Catalog Number: K.903

Name: Fragments from Nẵk Tà Svày Daṃba

Sources: C VI: 70.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The shrine of Nẵk Tà Svày Daṃba is located in the sruk of Thnăl Totưṅ, Kandàl province. Found at the site are these two fragments.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.904

Name: Stele of the Bàrày Occidental

Sources: C IV: 54.

Śaka date: (Śaka 635 = A.D. 713)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence distinguishes lines A: 1-2 from lines A: 14-5. The first is the evening of Wednesday, 5 April 713; the second is Saturday, 22 April 713, both by the Julian calendar (Billard, 7).

Provenance: Located in the sruk of Angkor Thom, Siem Reap province, the Bàrày Occidental lies some 15 kilometers northeast of Siem Reap. It was probably constructed during the reign of Sūryavarman I (A.D. 1001-1050), expanding the pre-existing body of water (danle) mentioned in line A: 18 hereafter. The stele bearing this inscription, measuring 0.70 x 0.47 meter, was discovered under water in 1939 in the course of archeological work along the western part of the Bàrày. Totaling 57 lines, the text is laid out with face A opening with 1½ lines in Khmer followed by 9½ lines in Sanskrit and 18 lines more in Khmer; face B consists of 28 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription is a good specimen of the language of the period and offers data of linguistic interest in abundance. As with № 18 and № 26, its close study brings rich rewards. Once broken down into manageable units its structure is seen to be logical and clear despite lexical and grammatical problems. The text records gifts to Śrī Tripurāntakeśvara made by a lord Śakrasvāmin, chief counsellor to queen Jayadevī, and his wife the princess Śobhājayā. On face A the queen grants Śakrasvāmin a piece of land which he names Śakrālaya; a few days later the queen grants him another piece of land. Both tracts are made over to the divinity, to whom he furnishes an allowance of milled rice. Śakrasvāmin makes a further gift to the divinity of 37 slaves and the yield from certain dry-season ricefields received from the queen. Face B opens with a list of 76 slaves given to the princess Śobhājayā by the princess Sundaryayuvatī; the former and her husband again assign these to Śiva. This is followed by two lists of sruk which appear to be part of the gift. Lastly, a third donor, the tāṅ of Purandarapura, presumably a relative, is mentioned as giving 44 more slaves to Śiva. The inscription closes with a standard imprecation of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.906

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 97-119, untranslated; APK I : 343-65. The interpolation is by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.907

Name: Piédroits of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 97-119, untranslated, hereafter Cœdès; APK I : 343-65. All interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.909

Name: Piédroits of Tà Prohm

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 97-119, untranslated, hereafter Cœdès; APK I : 343-65. C VIII: 213, note 1: ‘Dans cet article, ces inscriptions [K.909] sont numérotées par erreur K.913’. Except as noted, all interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.910

Name: Inscription of Tûol Aṅ Sraḥ Thãt

Sources: C V: 39-40.

Śaka date: (Śaka 573 = A.D. 652)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence is between November A.D. 651 and January A.D. 652 by the Julian calendar (Billard, 4).

Provenance: Tûol Aṅ Sraḥ Thãt is located in Kandal province, sruk of Thnal Totưṅ (C V: 39). This inscription, on one face of a stone o.95 high x o.76 meter wide, consists of 19 lines of which the first 2 are in Sanskrit, the remaining 17 being in Khmer. The date is given in the first line.

Synopsis: This inscription records gifts to a Śrī Kedareśvara and another divinity, unnamed. The donor is identified in line 2 of the Sanskrit text as a Mālava brāhmaṇa named Ananta, presumably from the Punjab. The gifts comprise slaves (40 in the first increment, at least 7 in the second), riceland acquired in three transactions, as well as areca and coconut palms, cloth, and costly small articles. The text is a valuable source of onomastic and lexical data.


Catalog Number: K.913

Name: Inscription of Tham-mo

Sources: C V: 270-2; APK, I: 349-51.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tham-mo is a site located in the village of Mỹ-qui, Tân An province, Vietnam, east of the Plaine des Joncs. This inscription, recovered in 1923, bears 17 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This disappointing inscription records a royal order from Udayādityavarman I to delimit ricelands belonging to four communities required to furnish quotas of honey and wax.1 Two or three other provisions are mentioned the purport of which is only dimly understood.


Catalog Number: K.914

Name: Piédroits of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 111, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.920

Name: Piédroits of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 111, untranslated; APK I : 343-65.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.922

Name: Fragment from the Mébŏn Occidental

Sources: C VI: 71.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Found at the Mébŏn Occidental in 1944 is this fragment apparently from an ancient piédroit, bearing 1 line in Sanskrit and 6 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.925

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 108-9, untranslated; APK I : 343-65. The interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.926

Name: Inscription of Thma Krê

Sources: C V: 20-2.

Śaka date: (Śaka 546 = A.D. 624)

Conventional date: The date is given both in the Sanskrit stanza and in line 3 of the Khmer text. The Common Era correspondence is Friday, 4 May, A.D. 624, approximately 01:21 hours, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 3).

Provenance: Thma Krê is located some 5 kilometers north-northwest of the community of Kratié in the province of the same name. Cœdès (C V: 20) places it in the phum of Čaṃbek and the khum of Saṃbok. Found in 1944 at a distance of 200 meters from the Mékong, this inscription consists of 11 lines, the first 2 being in Sanskrit, the remaining 9 being in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription records the erection of an image of Śaṃkaranārāyaṇa and the gift by a poñ Prajñākīrti of chattels (slaves, cows, areca palms, riceland, a granary) to a liṅga of Śiva, to be shared with Śaṃkaranārāyaṇa. The absence of punctuation, except for the full stop at the end of lines 3 and 5, tends to obscure the simple structure of the text.


Catalog Number: K.927

Name: Inscription of Thma Krê

Sources: C V: 22.

Śaka date: (Śaka 650 = A.D. 729)

Conventional date: C V: 22 gives the date as “6xx”, as does the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 217). As Cœdès points out (C V: 22, note 2), the d immediately after the opening three-place lacuna could be the last letter of pañcaśad°, yielding the Śaka year 650; it could also be the last letter of triṅśad°, yielding the Śaka year 630. In either case, if the lacuna is correctly assigned three places, there is no room for a unit number. Śaka 630, favored by M. Claude Jacques, corresponds to A.D. 708, while Śaka 650 corresponds to A.D. 728. Other details in the dateline have led M. Roger Billard to propose three choices: A.D. 710/711, A.D. 714/715, and A.D. 728/729 (Billard, 7). Of these I have adopted the last.

Provenance: For the location of Thma Krê see № 5, note 2. This inscription, on a stone o.27 meter high and 0.70 meter wide, consists of 6 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This short, curious inscription is noteworthy for its reverse organization: it is not until we reach the last passage that its purpose is mentioned. It tersely records the gift to Śrī Śaṃkaranārāyaṇa of two ricefields by a poñ Vrau Kros. The first field had been developed by a kurāk of Śūragrāma. The second had been bought by a Vaiṣṇavite named poñ Viśārada. How the two fields came into the hands of the donor is not stated. Despite its peculiarity, the text is not without interest.


Catalog Number: K.930

Name: Stele of Práḥ Si Àr

Sources: C V: 315, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie-xiiie siècles = A.D. 1178-1377)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Práḥ Si Àr is a Buddhist monument located within the precincts of Aṅkor Thoṃ (I, № 23, note 2).

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.931

Name: Piédroit of Práḥ Khằn

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Études cambodgiennes XXXIX. L’épigraphie des monuments de Jayavarman VII,” in BEFEO, XLIV (1947-1950).1 : 114-5, untranslated; APK I : 343-65. The interpolations are by Cœdès.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.933B

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Sraṅè

Sources: C IV: 47-52.

Śaka date: (Śaka 934 = A.D. 1013)

Conventional date: C IV: 47, note 1: ‘Phālguna 934 ç. correspond à février-mars 1013 A.D’.

Provenance: Pràsàt Sraṅè is the modern name of a group of three ruined brick towers lying about 300 meters east of the outer enceinte of Práḥ Kô in the Roluos group, 9.5 kilometers east of Siem Reap. A stele recovered from the central tower in 1945 bears an inscription on its two sides: face A, apparently unfinished, contains only 4 lines in Sanskrit, while face B bears 37 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: Another major specimen of Angkorian Khmer, with an ample display of grammatical features and a few challenging lexical problems. The inscription records the grant by Sūryavarman I to a Śrī Vāgīśvarādhipativarman of an āśrama presented to Jayavarman V 34 years previously by a loñ Varmaśiva and of lands received from Indravarman by Varmaśiva’s grandfather some 89 years previously. Also recorded are several additions made to the land. Lines 10-16 are taken up with provisions for the management of the grant, while lines 27-36 comprise a slavelist.


Catalog Number: K.934

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Sraṅè

Sources: This inscription is only summarily described at C IV: 45; the present text is the work of M. Dominique Soutif and was received from him 10 December 2006.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: On paleographic grounds Cœdès (loc. cit.) assigns the north piédroit to the reign of Indravarman (A.D. 877-889) and takes the south piédroit to be later.

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Sraṅè see II, № 36, note 2. The inscription is from the east portal of the central tower. According to Cœdès (loc. cit.), the south piédroit bears 41 lines in Khmer of which the first few are illegible, while the north piédroit bears some 20 lines in Khmer. The line numbering here is M. Soutif’s.

Synopsis: The legible parts of these ruined piédroits are taken up with nonsentential lists of slaves and chattels and contain little of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.936

Name: Inscription of Unknown Provenance

Sources: Text received 10 December 2006 from Dominique Soutif, amplied by comments 7 January 2007.

Śaka date: (undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.936N

Name: Piédroits of Pràsàt Sraṅè

Sources: This inscription is only summarily described at C IV: 45; the present text is the work of M. Dominique Soutif and was received from him 10 December 2006.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: On paleographic grounds Cœdès (loc. cit.) assigns the south piédroit to the reign of Indravarman (A.D. 877-889), the north piédroit being somewhat later.

Provenance: For the location of Pràsàt Sraṅè see II, № 36, note 2. This inscription is from the east portal of the south tower. According to Cœdès (loc. cit.), the south piédroit, illegible (‘très ruiné’), bears text of 22 lines in Khmer, continued on a 7-line fragment; the north piédroit given here bears an additional 17 lines in a later hand.

Synopsis: A 17-line inscription comprising a list of dravya, their donor and destination unknown. As usual, the text is chiefly of lexical value.


Catalog Number: K.938

Name: Fragment from Văt Phˀu

Sources: C VII: 121-2, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Văt Phˀu see II, № 21, note 2. This inscription, believed to have come from Văt Phˀu, was found in Paksé in 1945. As of 1964, the date of C VII, no estampages or photographs had been made of it; the present text is from a transcription made by the late Pierre Dupont. All in Khmer, it consists of 17 lines on face A, 13 lines on face B.

Synopsis: The condition of this inscription prohibits translation and description.


Catalog Number: K.939

Name: Inscription of Tûol Čàm

Sources: C V:56, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Čàm is a small hill in the vicinity of Aṅkor Bórĕi, for the location of which see I, № 1, note 2. The stone on which this inscription was engraved was a 0.90-meter wide rectangular stele or piédroit recut along the top to form a tenon, thus destroying some twelve characters at each end of the first four lines.

Synopsis: Short stretches of this inscription are comprehensible, but the sense of the text as a whole lies beyond our grasp and anything like a coherent translation is impossible.


Catalog Number: K.940

Name: Stele of Tûol Nẵk Tà Bằk Ka

Sources: C V: 73.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: In the words of Cœdès, this stele was found in January of 1948 in a ricefield at Tûol Nẵk Tà Bằk Ka, located in the khum of Daṅkor, sruk of Phnom-Penh, in Kandàl province. It is a rectangular stone o.90 meter high and o.40 meter wide, and bears an inscription of 11 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: A short but novel inscription with an interesting structure, legible in its entirety.


Catalog Number: K.944

Name: Piédroit of Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Snòr

Sources: C V: 210-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka 925 = A.D. 1003)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Trapẵṅ Snòr is the ruins of a brick sanctuary located 40 kilometers due east of Siem Reap. Cœdès (C V: 210) situates it northwest of Beng Mealea, half-way between phum Tưk Lič (Tœk Lech in the sruk of Sotr Nikum) and the quarry at Trapeang Thma Dàp. This inscription of 13 lines is from the south piédroit of the sanctuary’s portal.

Synopsis: The condition of this short inscription, flawed by numerous lacunæ, makes it difficult or impossible to make any coherent sense of it. The most that can be said is that it offers good exercise in coping with a document in this state of ruin.


Catalog Number: K.945

Name: Bronze Pedestal from Vằt Pô Vãl

Sources: C VII: 123.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date: C VII: 123: ‘On peut se demander s’il ne s’agit pas du roi Jayavarman VII dont la plupart des fondations portent justement un nom débutant par celui du roi’.

Provenance: Vằt Pô Vãl is a temple located in Batdambang province; I do not have its exact location. Kept at the temple is a bronze image of three figures of which the middle figure is missing. The base bears this 1-line inscription.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.947

Name: Pillar of Lolei

Sources: This text is the initial decipherment of the stone by M. Dominique Soutif (hereafter DS), who kindly communicated it to me 1 November 2006, with ammendments forwarded 18 November 2006.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: C VIII: 219.

Provenance: For the location of Lolei see I, № 5, note 2. This inscription, all in Khmer, is from a pillar in the north corner of the gopura. It consists of 30 lines on face A, 6 lines on face B. I have reduced M. Soutif’s textual conventions to the bare minimum. Note that the text has five forms conforming to the pre-Angkorian orthographic tradition: knāy (A: 19), cnaṅ (A: 17), tniṃ (A: 22), tmo (A: 11, 19), and pkā (A: 23).

Synopsis: This inscription comprises a list of dravya, their donor and recipient being unmentioned. Though of no grammatical value, it is of exceptional interest because of the large number of lexical items which it cites.


Catalog Number: K.950

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Anloṅ Čàr

Sources: C VI: 115-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 871 = A.D. 949)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Anloṅ Čàr, as Cœdès states (C VI: 115), is located in Prei Veng province about 2 kilometers west of Tûol Bantãy Čakrĕi. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, I: map facing page 240, shows ‘Banteay Cha Krei’ on the Cochinchina frontier some 44 kilometers due southeast of ‘Banam.’ A schist slab found in the vicinity bears an inscription of 22 lines in Sanskrit, to the right of which is another inscription of 17 lines in Khmer. The historical importance of this second inscription, Cœdès remarks, is its identification of ancient Vyādhapura with modern Bà Phnoṃ.

Synopsis: This inscription dating from the reign of Rājendravarman is exceptional in that its sole apparent purpose is to report a royal directive enabling a vāp Pas to curtail the wanderings of buffaloes. It is of grammatical interest only because of its complicated structure.


Catalog Number: K.953B

Name: Stele of Pˀimai

Sources: C VII: 124-6; RS III, № 59: 125.

Śaka date: (Śaka 963 = A.D. 1041)

Conventional date: Regarding the 953 opening the Khmer text, C VII: 124: ‘Il débute par une date : 953 ç., année du Serpent, erreur manifeste pour 963, millésime de la face A, qui est effectivement une année du Serpent’. See also loc. cit., 125, note 1.

Provenance: Pˀimai (Pˀimay) is an important archeological site 50 kilometers due east-northeast of Khorat, on the right bank of the Me Nam Mun. This inscription is from the upper part of a stele found in 1959 at the southeast corner of the sanctuary’s tower. Its first face bears 7 lines in Sanskrit while its second face bears 8 lines, the first 2 in Sanskrit, the remaining 6 in Khmer.

Synopsis: An inscription remakable chiefly for its brevity and tight-lipped wording. Its purpose is to record the gift by an unnamed donor of one female slave, four material items, and a daily allowance of food to the High Lord of the World at an unidentified sanctuary.


Catalog Number: K.954

Name: Pedestal from Pˀimai

Sources: C VII: 126-7; RS III, № 60: 129.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date: The inscription may date from the reign of Sūryavarman II (A.D. 1113-post 1145). See Cœdès’s remarks at C VII: 126.

Provenance: For the location of Pˀimai see II, № 65, note 2. Found in 1954, this 1-line legend is on the pedestal of an image on the west side of the south wall of the temple’s inner gallery.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.956/1°

Name: № 91: Vằt Saṃròṅ Stone

Sources: C VII: 128-35.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Saṃròṅ is a modern temple located in phum Čiphoč, sruk Bà Phnoṃ, Prei Vêṅ province. Found on its premises in 1954 was a stone slab bearing 61 lines of text in Khmer. The first 6 of these, which I designate K.956/1°, dates from pre-Angkorian times while the remaining 55 (K.956/2°) are assigned by the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 219) to Śaka ixe siècle.

Synopsis: A short inscription of minor interest, involving a single problem (dhūli ˀ) of interpretation.


Catalog Number: K.956/2°

Name: Vằt Saṃròṅ Stone

Sources: C VII: 128-36.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: The text dates (C VII: 128) from a time after the reign of Yaśovarman (A.D. 889-900).

Provenance: For the location of Vằt Saṃròṅ see the pre-Angkorian volume, № 50, note 2. This 55-line inscription is on the same dalle as K.956/1°, which occupies the first 6 lines. Well worth reviewing are Cœdès’s comments (C VII: 128-9) on the text in relation to K.235.

Synopsis: This inscription, composed probably in the reign of Harṣavarman I (A.D. 900-post 922), recounts the fortunes of an illustrious family originating in Bhavapura and is of special historical interest in recording a rite performed under Jayavarman II by one of its members by marriage (the well-known Śrī Pṛthivīnarendra) to free Kambujadeśa of hege-mony by Javā. The bulk of the inscription, in narrative form, records lands acquired by the family under royal benefices awarded by a succession of sovereigns, as well as certain pious works by members of the family. Showing a minimum of lacunae, the text, at times amusingly repetitious, is of the first quality, being written with thought, well organized, generally clear, and illustrative of grammatical mechanisms.


Catalog Number: K.956/I°

Name: Vằt Saṃròṅ Stone

Sources: C VII: 128. K.956/I° is my designation of the first 6 lines of K.956, the remaining 55 lines dating from Śaka ixe siècle.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie siècle = A.D. 578-677)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vằt Saṃròṅ is a modern temple located in phum Čiphoč, sruk Bà Phnoṃ, Prei Vêṅ province. Found on its premises in 1954 was a large slab of stone bearing 61 lines of text. Of these the first 6, which the “Liste générale …” (C VIII: 219) assigns to Śaka vie siècle, are reproduced here.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.957

Name: Stele of Nông Pˀang Pˀuey

Sources: C VII: 137-40.

Śaka date: (Śaka 863 = A.D. 941)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This stele was found in 1955 in the vicinity of Aranya Prathet, Sa Kaew province, Thailand (C VII: 137); as the neighborhood of Nông Pˀang Pˀuey has no recognized archeological remains, its provenance is unknown. The stele, as Cœdès observes, bears what appear to be two separate inscriptions, all in Khmer: 21 lines on face A, 13 lines on face B, the latter evidently incomplete.

Synopsis: In this inscription the family of an ācārya Paramācārya, having established a foundation in sruk Vanapura, provides for its integration with the sanctuary at Liṅgapura. On face A, a modest allowance is made for the sustenance of the divinity and four tracts of riceland as well as three female slaves and cattle are furnished. A royal order places the foundation outside the authority of secular officials. Face A concludes with a unique admonition to offenders. Face B is ruined to the point where it can only be conjectured that it amplifies the text on the first side. Despite this, the inscription is full of instructive grammatical feaures and can be studied with much profit.


Catalog Number: K.958N

Name: Inscription of Pràsàt Kôk Čak

Sources: C VII: 141-7.

Śaka date: (Śaka 869 = A.D. 947)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Kôk Čak is a small tower, never completed, located in Siem Reap province 6 kilometers from the town of Siem Reap and close to the line between sruk Siem Reap and sruk Sutr Nikum. This inscription is on the two piédroits of the tower’s east portal and consists of 42 lines in Sanskrit on the south piédroit, followed by 38 lines in Khmer on the north piédroit. Cœdès (C VII: 141, note liminaire) states that the ends of the last [sic] 7 lines are missing, but he means to refer to the first 7 lines.

Synopsis: For baroque elegance of exposition this is one of the best specimens of Angkorian Khmer which has been recovered so far, and for the grammatical material it contains this is one of the the richest in the series encountered up to this point. The scholar wishing to reach full appreciation of the austere grace and flexibility of Old Khmer grammar will apply himself to understanding the text in all its parts. The damaged opening passage, insofar as it can be understood, records a pious work given by a loñ So to his guru the steṅ ˀ Rudrā as an honorarium for his dīkṣā. Validating this gift, a directive from Rājendravarman orders that the lands and slaves forming the pious work shall be a royal benefice to Rudrā and may be transmitted in full right to his descendants. After this hazy opening the text progresses in logical steps and is eminently clear despite passages of deliberate complexity. The royal directive provides for the delimitation of the land in question and assignment of 11 slaves and 3 tracts of riceland and other land to Rudrā. The latter sets up an image of Śrī Bhadreśvara and makes gifts to it of land and slaves, which are cited in fair detail.


Catalog Number: K.963

Name: Bronze Mirror from Văt Phˀu

Sources: C VII: 148.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date: C VII: 148 assigns the paleography to the 13th century; the “Liste générale … “ (C VIII: 221) assigns it to Śaka xiie.

Provenance: For the location of Văt Phˀu see II, № 21, note 2.

Synopsis: A 1-line inscription on the handle of a mirror attributed to Văt Phˀu.


Catalog Number: K.966/II

Name: Stele of Dong Mè Nang Mương

Sources: G. Cœdès, “Nouvelles données épigraphiques sur l’histoire de l’Indochine centrale,” in JA, 246 (1958).2: 125-42; VV I.3: 12; RS III, № 35: 12.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1089 = A.D. 1167)

Conventional date: The date is given in lines 17-9.

Provenance: Dong Mè Nang Mương is a site in Nakhon Sawan province, Thailand, near the hamlet of Ban Map Makham (canton of Bang Ta Ngai, district of Banphot Phisai), north of the confluence of the Me Ping with the Menam. This inscription is from a stele with text on both sides. Face I bears some twenty lines in Pāli, of which the first 10 are partly legible. Face II bears 33 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription records offerings to the High Lord of the World in Dhānyapura by the Mahādhirājādhirāja Śrī Dharmaśoka, by whose order five tracts of riceland are offered to the same divinity by a kuruṅ Sunatta, headman of Dhānyapura. The text is a good source of grammatical details.


Catalog Number: K.967

Name: Piédroit of the Bàpûon

Sources: C VII: 149.

Śaka date: (Śaka xiie siècle = A.D. 1178-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of the Bàpuon see IV, № 18, note 2. C VII: 149, note liminaire: ‘L’inscription d’une ligne est du type des petites inscriptions donnant les noms des statues placées dans les chapelles des monuments du règne de Jayavarman VII, mais les caractères paraissent plutôt un peu antérieurs à l’époque du Bàyon’.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.968B

Name: Fragment of Unknown Origin

Sources: C VII: 150-1.

Śaka date: (Śaka 966 = A.D. 1044)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Cœdès (C VII: 150) describes this fragment as ‘apparemment un morceau détaché d’une stèle à quatre faces’. It was come upon by chance in the gallery of the Institut Bouddhique in Phnom-Penh, and ‘Sa provenance est totalement inconnue’. The text on two of its sides is in poor condition and barely legible. Face A contains 8 or more lines in Sanskrit, face B 2 lines in Sanskrit followed by 8 lines in Khmer. Except as noted, all interpolations are by Cœdès.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.970

Name: Fragment from Práḥ Khằn

Sources: C VII: 153.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: The text probably dates from the reign of Jayavarman V (A.D. 968-1001).

Provenance: C VII: 153 specifies that the Práḥ Khằn in question here is in Kŏṃpoṅ Svày, whereas C VIII: 220 assigns it to Kŏṃpoṅ Thoṃ. Because of changes in the provincial boundaries, both are correct and the sanctuary is now in Práḥ Vihãr province and not to be confused with the Práḥ Khằn in Siem Reap province at the northeast corner of Aṅkor Thoṃ.

Synopsis: A morsel of no grammatical value but of possible onomastic and lexical interest.


Catalog Number: K.973

Name: Text on a Bronze Mirror

Sources: C VII: 154.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1114 = A.D. 1192)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The lower bracket of a bronze mirror bearing this 2-line text was found in 1959 not far from the ruins of Prasat Hin Kˀok Prasat, which lie near the village of Kˀok Ngiu in aṃphœ Nang Rông, Buriram province, Thailand.

Synopsis: This 2-line inscription poses no grammatical problems.


Catalog Number: K.974

Name: Vases of Văt Ban Nasam

Sources: C VII: 155.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1123 = A.D. 1201)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Văt Ban Nasam is located in Surin province, Thailand. Found at the site by members of the Archeological Service of Thailand in 1960 were two bronze, three-legged vases, each bearing a brief inscription in Khmer.

Synopsis: Two vase inscriptions from the reign of Jayavarman VII.


Catalog Number: K.979

Name: Fragment from Si Tˀep

Sources: C VII: 158.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Si Tˀep (Śrī Deva) is located near Ban Nong Mai So in Phetchabun province, Thailand, in the amphơ of Vichien.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.989

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Bĕṅ

Sources: C VII: 164-89.

Śaka date: (Śaka 930 = A.D. 1008)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Bĕṅ is situated in the sruk of Phnoṃ Srok, Banteay Meanchey province. It was known to Aymonier (Le Cambodge, II: 351) as ‘Prasat Pring Bêt Méas’, but is shown on loc.cit., first map facing page 304, as ‘Prasat Beng ou Prasat Pring Méas’, on the right (west) bank of the Stung Kampong Kassang, which divides the sruk of Phnoṃ Srok from that of Chong Kal. It is about 14 kilometers southwest of ‘M. Chong Kal’, 55 kilometers due east by north of Svay Chek, 65 kilometers due northeast of Sisophon, 90 kilometers due east by north of Sdok Kak Thom. Found at the site is a red sandstone stele with a Buddhist text on its four sides disposed as follows: face A, 29 lines in Sanskrit; face B, 4½ lines in Sanskrit followed by 45 lines in Khmer; face C, 29 lines in Khmer; face D, 4 lines in Khmer. Aymonier and Cœdès both call attention to the preference for b over v.

Synopsis: A long, rambling inscription likely to please the student of grammar. Lines B: 5-39 foreshadow the genealogical matter in the Sdok Kak Thom inscription (K.235) by tracing the descent, from the reign of Jayavarman II down to that of Sūryavarman I, of a dynasty of ecclesiastics from a female ancestor named the steñ Rau. The remainder records the setting up of a śivaliṅga and four divinities by the kaṃsteṅ Śrī Narapatīndravarman and his kinsmen and the specific provisions of an endowment made to them. From B: 41 to the end the text consists largely of nonsentential passages the structure of which can be worked out from my English renderings without the help of individual descriptions. The text, nearly unflawed, is clearly written, logically ordered, and full of useful grammatical details. Inevitably, lexical problems remain.


Catalog Number: K.990B

Name: Fragment from Pràsàt Phˀum Pˀon

Sources: C VII: 190.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pràsàt Phˀum Pˀon is located in Surin province, Thailand, amphơ of Saṅkhaḥ.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.991

Name: Stele from Prachinburi

Sources: C VII: 191-3, untranslated.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date: The inscription dates from the reign of Sūryavarman I (A.D. 1001-1050).

Provenance: This inscription is attributed to Prachinburi province, just east of Bangkok, but its exact provenance is not on record. It consists of 33 lines on one face of the stele: 4 lines in Sanskrit, 29 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: Another ruined inscription from which little can be gleaned except a few personal names and toponyms.


Catalog Number: K.992B

Name: Fragment from Sukhotai Province

Sources: C VII: 194.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: These lines are on a stele of unknown provenance from Sukhotai province, Thailand. In his note liminaire Cœdès makes a valuable comment on the inscription’s historical importance.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.999

Name: Inscription of K’ok Čèṅ

Sources: NIC II/III: 124-5, hereafter Pou; AIC, I: 627-9,

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: K’ok Čèṅ is located in Prachinburi province, just east of Bangkok. This inscription, now in the National Museum of Bangkok, comprises 13 lines in Khmer. My □ represents 2 hyphens used by Pou and AIC.

Synopsis: Apart fom showing pronoun ˀ (line 8) used where yeṅ would be expected, this short inscription is of limited grammatical value but is not without toponymic and onomastic interest.


Catalog Number: K.1001

Name: Fragment from Pˀimai

Sources: Claude Jacques, “Études d’épigraphie cambodgienne. II. Inscriptions diverses récemment découvertes en Thaïlande,” in BEFEO, LVI (1969): 57-73.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date: This attribution is a compromise between Cœdès, who assigns the text to Śaka ixe siècle (C VIII: 225), and M. Jacques, who dates the paleography to the 12th century A.D.

Provenance: For the location of Pˀimai see II, № 65, note 2. This ruined text is the first of four fragments published by M. Jacques from the lower part of a piédroit. Because of their condition the three other fragments ae not reproduced here.

Synopsis: Another ruined inscription from which little can be drawn, but which illustrates how grammatical knowledge derived from other inscriptions can aid in conjecturing some of the sense of such texts.


Catalog Number: K.1004

Name: Inscription of Tûol Kuhã

Sources: Unpublished transcription by M. Claude Jacques, ms, 175-85, with no translation.

Śaka date: (Śaka 612 = A.D. 691)

Conventional date: This date, given in the first two lines, has been calculated by M. Roger Billard.

Provenance: Tûol Kuhã is a site in Kandàl province which I am unable to locate on modern maps. This inscription of 13 lines consists of 2 lines in Sanskrit followed by 11 lines in Khmer. Despite M. Jacques’s meticulous reading of the estampages, a good many passages are impenetrable and it is not surprising that the text has long remained unpublished. What I attempt here may be useful in directing the attention of future epigraphists to critical points.

Synopsis: This inscription, barely comprehensible despite the care with which it was transcribed, is well worth the student’s close attention. It is is included here both for the problems it raises and for the interest of its lexical and structural elements. A text in the condition of this one is a necessary part of the student’s training, offering valuable experience in working with imperfect material; it should excite his intellectual curiosity and motivate him to accept the challenge of the problems it poses. The rational approach to a document of this kind is to examine it to the extent that examination is possible, without expectation that one’s results will be definitive. To despair of revealing the full meaning of such a text is as unrealistic as it is unscholarly. The ever-present hope here is that the epigraphist will in his own good time re-examine the textual difficulties one identifies, with the result that the meaning of the document will be improved in part or in whole. To the extent that it understood, our text reports ten provisions of a royal order regulating the staff of a sanctuary dedicated to Śrī Amrātakeśvara. The sense of these provisions is obscured by lacunæ and the presence of lexical items presently unidentified.


Catalog Number: K.1010

Name: Fragment of Sraṅ

Sources: BEFEO, LVI (1969): 70-1; new reading by M. Claude Jacques.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date: CJ, 70, estimates that the text dates from the end of the reign of Jayavarman I, in other words from the end of the 7th century A.D.

Provenance: CJ locates the sangkat of Sraṅ in the sruk of Koṅ Pisei, Kompong Speu province. The fragment in question here measures o.25 x o.25 meter, and may have been the upper part of a small stele. A little over 3 lines of text are still legible.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.1017

Name: Inscription of Daun To

Sources: NIC II/III: 179.

Śaka date: (Śaka vie-viie siècles = A.D. 578-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Mme Pou describes the estampage as showing a stone 90 centimeters high and 66 centimeters wide, bearing a pre-Angkorian inscription of 19 lines of which the first four are in Sanskrit. The fifth line begins with ˀaṃnoy, followed by slavenames and rice-fields. Of these barely one-tenth are legible, and the text is not considered worth transcribing.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: K.1028B

Name: Stele of Vằt Prei Veṅ

Sources: CJ, unpublished manuscript of 2 pages; NIC II/III: 25; AIC, I: 251, IV: 68.

Śaka date: (Śaka 536 = A.D. 614)

Conventional date: The Sanskrit text is dated Śaka 536, while the Khmer text, assigned to the 6th century Śaka, is probably from the same year. The Common Era correspondence is Monday, 21 October, A.D. 614, approximately 05:57 hours, by the Julian calendar (Billard, 3).

Provenance: Vằt Prei Veṅ is a modern temple located in Kandal province (Phnom Penh City), Prey Veng commune, Khan Dangko. The stele found at the site bears a badly damaged inscription of 12 lines in Sanskrit on face A, 21 lines in Khmer on face B. AIC, I: 251, notes that the stone is broken into three fragments.

Synopsis: This challenging text of twenty lines records the setting up of images of Durgā and Gaṇeśa and the gift to them by an unnamed lady of rank (tāṅ ˀ) of chattels to be shared with Śrī Āmratakeśvara.


Catalog Number: K.1029

Name: Inscription of Vằt Prei Vêṅ

Sources: Transcription by M. Claude Jacques, unpublished 8-page manuscript, 194-201, here-after identified as CJ; new transcription by M. Dominique Soutif, received 23 May 2007, hereafter identified as DS.

Śaka date: (Śaka 665 = A.D. 744)

Conventional date: The Common Era correspondence was not calculated by M. Roger Billard and must therefore be taken as provisional.

Provenance: Vằt Prei Vêṅ is located in Kandàl province, though I have not found it on my maps. This inscription, found near the site, consists of 16 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription was transcribed by two skilled epigraphists with the utmost attention to detail, but remains challenging both because of questionable readings and because it fails to furnish the modern reader essential circumstances which must have been obvious to the contemporaneous reader. The royal order with which it opens speaks of the images of two divinities, Śrī Tilakeśvara and a My Holy High Lord of the Śrī Rudramahālaya. As comes to light, these were set up two generations prior to promulgation of the order. The object of the order is to make provision for the continued support of the divinities, both of which are served by a corps of madhyamaparicāraka under the authority of a lady of rank by the name of Mahāvikrāntakesarī. This person is the grand-daughter of the tāṅ Rudradāsa who was chiefly concerned in setting up My Holy High Lord of the Rudramahālaya; she is a niece of a poñ Śrutakīrti associated with the tāṅ Rudradāsa (lines 4-5, 12-3). The royal gift consists of eight ricefields, which are given over to Mahāvikrāntakesarī and her staff on behalf of both divinities. The inscription closes with a short admonition to possible desecraters.


Catalog Number: K.1030

Name: Inscription of Prasat Ballang

Sources: NIC II: 17-9; NIC II/III: 23-4; AIC I: 257-9, IV: 69, 70; Professor Gerdi Gersch-heimer, fichier.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie siècle = A.D. 778-877)

Conventional date: Date revised from A.D. 678-777 by GG. Except for va tyāk in line 8, the orthography conforms to the pre-Angkorian tradition in all respects.

Provenance: Prasat Ballang is located in Batdambang province. Found at the site is a slab of yellow sandstone 50 centimeters high, 41 cm wide and 10 cm thick, bearing 13 lines in Khmer preceded by traces of 1 line. In preparing the present text I have been greatly aided by the fichier from Professor Gerschheimer (GG), received in December 2005.

Synopsis: This short inscription, of scant grammatical interest, reports 8 slaves given to an aspect of Śiva by a donor whose name is illegible, and 9 slaves and 22 domestics (with 4 children) given presumably to the same divinity by a poñ Rudraśāsana. No doubt the reading given here falls short of being definitive; as my footnotes indicate, the text poses serious problems of decipherment.


Catalog Number: K.1034

Name: Stele of Pràsàt Čha Čhuk

Sources: Claude Jacques, “Études d’épigraphie cambodgienne. V. La stèle du Prasat Cha Chuk (K.1034),” in BEFEO, LVII (1970): 68-89, hereafter CJ.

Śaka date: (Śaka ixe siècle = A.D. 878-977)

Conventional date: The inscription dates probably from the reign of Harṣavarman I (A.D. 900-post 922).

Provenance: Pràsàt Čha Čhuk is a modern temple located in the ghuṃ of Čha Čhuk, sruk of Pûok, Siem Reap province, about 45 kilometers due northwest of the provincial seat. Found in a ruined monument on the site is a square stele of grey sandstone about 98 centimeters high, each side about 29.5 centimeters wide. Face A bears 20 lines in Sanskrit; face B bears 12 more lines in Sanskrit followed by 11 lines in Khmer; face C bears 25 lines in Khmer; face D bears 25 lines in Khmer. Along the bottom of faces B, C and D run an additional 4, 3 and 2 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: The Sanskrit text of this Vaiṣṇavite inscription records the installation in A.D. 895 of images of two divinities, Śrī Bhaṭṭārāditya and Śrī Puruṣottamasvāmin, by a purohita named Viṣṇubhaṭṭa. The Khmer text details 173 slaves and conscripts dedicated to the service of both as well as riceland received as royal benefices, together with riceland emanating from two associates of Viṣṇubhaṭṭa, and ends with separate lists of property (bhoga) dedicated to each divinity; as usual, these lists include a good many items which have not been identified. Otherwise, these 70 lines are exceptionally well organized, are clearly written, and pose few problems of interpretation.


Catalog Number: K.1036

Name: Stone from Tûol Ro Ñãṅ

Sources: NIC II/III: 149-55.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date: The text dates from the reign of Sūryavarman II (A.D. 1113-post 1145).

Provenance: Tûol Ro Ñãṅ is written ‘Tuol Rognieng’ by Pou, but ‘Tûol Ro Ṅāṅ (Saṅkor)’in Claude Jacques, “Supplément au tome VIII des Inscriptions du Cambodge,” in BEFEO, LVIII (1971): 182. I am unable to confirm one spelling or the other or to locate a ‘Saṅkor’ on maps available to me. The hill is located in Svày Rieṅ province, probably in the sruk of Kampong Rou, a few kilometers from the Vietnam frontier. This inscription is on a block of stone bearing on face A 15 lines in Khmer, 11 lines in Sanskrit, 31 lines in Khmer including a last line written transversally; on face B, 38 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: One can only regret the lamentable condition of this 84-line inscription, for in its pristine form it must have been considerably richer in historical data and specimens of grammar than in its present state. Its legible parts trace the fortunes and pious works of a dynasty of ecclesiastics from pre-Angkorian times down to the reign of Sūryavaran II. More often than not, however, the text is interrupted by lacunæ of varying length which make full understanding of the document impossible. It appears to be the joint work of the guru Rudrā and his nephew Vidyāspada.


Catalog Number: K.1068

Name: Stele of Phnoṃ Rŭṅ

Sources: NIC II/III: 142-4.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie siècle = A.D. 1078-1177)

Conventional date:

Provenance: On the location of Phnoṃ Rŭṅ both Pou and Claude Jacques (“Nouveau supplément (provisoire) à la Liste générale des inscriptions du Cambodge”) are silent, as is Cœdès’s Index alphabétique pour “Le Cambodge”de M. Aymonier (Paris : Imprimerie Nationale, 1911). This badly damaged inscription is little more than a fragment.

Synopsis: A badly damaged inscription, in its present condition of little grammatical interest but offering a few additions to the lexicon. No structural descriptions are attempted.


Catalog Number: K.1074

Name: Fragment from Phnoṃ Rŭṅ

Sources: NIC II/III: 141.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie-xiie siècles = A.D. 1078-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: On Phnoṃ Rŭṅ see № 17, note 2. A stele recovered from the site bears on one of its faces an inscription of which the upper and lower parts are no longer legible. As Pou reports, it has also been inventoried as K.1090.

Synopsis: Three passages of a ruined inscription, now of little but onomastic interest.


Catalog Number: K.1085

Name: Stele of Vat Pa Saen

Sources: NIC II/III: 119-23, hereafter Pou.

Śaka date: (Śaka xe siècle = A.D. 978-1077)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vat Pa Saen is located in Ubon province, Thailand, but I am unable to fix it more precisely. Found at the site is a stele bearing text on all four sides: face A, 13 lines in Sanskrit followed by 21 lines in Khmer; face B, 37 lines in Khmer; face C, 12 lines in Sanskrit followed by 19 lines in Khmer; face D, 34 lines in Khmer. Mme Pou’s text given here includes faces A and B only.

Synopsis: Representing this last inscription of the group with fidelity is out of the question. In addition to 16 lines which are illegible, long and short lacunæ in the surviving text are rife. Its purpose is to place on record provisions and chattels assigned to a succession of ecclesiastics at various locations. The reader will note the vexing contradiction between, on the one hand, the orderly division of the legible text into at least nine paragraphs and, on the other, the disorderly enumeration of the provisions and chattels, in which sentences alternate with nonsentential strings.


Catalog Number: K.1087

Name: Inscription of Sdok Kak Thom

Sources: &ki@@dBoxitgLwmp, volume, date and page to be added; NIC II/III: 106-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 859 = A.D. 937)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The temple of Sdok Kak Thom, the ancient Bhadraniketana, is located in Sa Kaew province, Thailand, some 30 kilometers northeast of Aranya Prathet. See the map in Sak-Humphry, The Sdok Kak Thom Inscription (K.235). As mentioned in that work (op.cit., 4, note 3), this inscription, dated 115 years before K.235, seems to have been recovered by Thai archeologists some time in the 1930s.

Synopsis: This inscription of 31 lines records a foundation by a lord Madhyamaśiva and two others as well as its integration with a sanctuary dedicated to Parameśvara. By royal directive a proclamation is set up to this effect and includes injunctions against abuse of the sanctuary and its personnel. The inscription ends with a short list of female and male slaves assigned to the sanctuary. The text, a good specimen of the language of the period, contains much of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.1094

Name: Stele of Na Dun

Sources: NIC II/III: 164-5; AIC, III: 1470-2.

Śaka date: (Śaka xi-xii siècles = A.D. 1078-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Na Dun is a village located in the far southeastern corner of Khong Kaen province, Thailand, a good distance southwest of Roi Et. A stele recently found there bears on one face this inscription of 14 lines.

Synopsis: A short inscription, probably incomplete and posing two problems of interpretation. First, if the royal order was to engrave the three names on a suvarṇapattra, why was it necessary to record the order on stone? Second, is it not likely that the three names belong to the same individual?1 Neither question can be answered from the data at hand.


Catalog Number: K.1128

Name: Stele of Khok Klang

Sources: NIC II/III: 262-5.

Śaka date: (Śaka xie-xiie siècles = A.D. 1078-1277)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Khok Klang is located in Buriram province, Thailand, but is not shown on maps available to me. The stele recently found at the site bears on two faces an inscription of which little remains legible.

Synopsis: Another fragmentary inscription of limited grammatical interest. Because of its frequent lacunæ no structural descriptions are appended.


Catalog Number: K.1141B

Name: Stele of Sema (Korat)

Sources: NIC II: 114-9, II/III: 115-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 894 = A.D. 972)

Conventional date:

Provenance: I have no information on the provenance of this text. Face A bears an unspecified number of lines in Sanskrit, which are continued in the first 11 lines of face B.

Synopsis: This exemplary 16-line inscription reports a royal directive ordering a lord (tralāv) Śrī Dṛḍhabhaktiśaṣṭāvarman to dedicate an image of a divinity known as vraḥ kamrateṅ ˀañ ta rājya of Daṃraṅ; the lord does so, makes offerings and an allowance to the divinity. With his brother he also sets up images of Parameśvara and Bhagavatī, making them gifts of small articles, an āśrama, lands, and slaves. The text is well-written, well-ordered, clear, and free of lacunæ except in line 27. It is one of our best specimens of 10th-century Old Khmer and a good source of grammatical features.


Catalog Number: K.1152A

Name: Stele of Ta Praya

Sources: RS IV, № 109: 140; NIC II/III: 126-8; AIC, II: 982-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 884 = A.D. 962)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vat Ta Praya is located in Prachinburi province, Thailand, but the exact provenance of this text is unknown to me.

Synopsis: This inscription records the appointment of a vāp Sarvaśiva as mūla of the pages of the royal chamber of diversions and the award to him of the sruk of Sramo Eṃ as a royal benefice. The disposition and development of the land are descibed in detail.


Catalog Number: K.1152B

Name: Stele of Ta Praya

Sources: RS IV, № 109: 140; NIC II/III: 126-8; AIC, II: 982-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 899 = A.D. 977)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Vat Ta Praya is located in Prachinburi province, Thailand, but the exact provenance of this text is unknown to me.

Synopsis: This inscription records a royal directive awarding the sruk of Sramo Eṃ to a lord Somaśiva, a nephew of the lord (formerly vāp) Sarvaśiva, and certain provisions for its exemption from levies.


Catalog Number: K.1153

Name: Inscription of Tham Phra

Sources: NIC II/III: 261.

Śaka date: (Śaka 988 = A.D. 1066)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tham Phra is situated in Sakhon Nakhon, Thailand. I am not able to fix its exact location or give any particulars regarding the stone.

Synopsis: A six-line inscription exhibiting nothing of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.1198AC

Name: Stele of O Smach

Sources: This text is from a meticulous new reading by Professor Gerdi Gerschheimer, obligingly communicated to me 23 December 2005.

Śaka date: (Śaka 931 = A.D. 1009)

Conventional date:

Provenance: O Smach is located in Uttar Mean Chey province (formerly Siem Reap); I am unable to locate it on modern maps. The existence of this stele was first reported in 1994 as having been recovered at ‘Thma Puok / O Smach’ in Siem Reap province. This Thma Puok is probably not to be confused with the Thma Pûok in Banteay Mean Chey province, 40 kilometers due north by east of Sisophon. The stele is described as a block of sandstone 1.54 meters high and o.87 meter wide with text on two [sic] of its faces. Face A, bearing 60 lines (28 in Sanskrit, the remainder in Khmer), corresponds to face B of Ka.18 (NIC II/III: 240-60; face C, not published by Pou, bears 69 short lines in Khmer. For face B see № 36 (Pou’s Ka.18A). The present text must be taken as still provisional.

Synopsis: After an optative opening, this inscription consists entirely of inventories of temple property, servants and slaves assigned to the śivaliṅga at Madhyadeśa and another place unnamed, to Parameśvara, Nārāyaṇa, Gaurīpatīśvara, and Nārtakeśvara. A few slaves offered up by two chief lords are listed at the end. A rich source of onomastic data, the text is of little grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: K.1198B

Name: Stele of O Smach

Sources: New reading by Professor Gerdi Gerschheimer, Professor Arlo Griffiths, and M. Dominique Soutif, received in January 2006; NIC II/III: 240-60, corresponding to Ka.18A, and identified hereafter as Pou.

Śaka date: (Śaka 936 = A.D. 1014)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of O Smach see № 28, note 2.

Synopsis: This inscription of 57 lines records a command from Sūryavarman I for a proclamation to be set up in Madhyadeśa (together with major sacrifices and the installation of a new śivaliṅga), validating the landholdings of a vraḥ kaṃsteṅ ˀ named Śrī Lakṣmīpativarman. His acquisition of nine tracts, one of which involves him in litigation with a fellow cleric, are described in detail. The text, which raises problems of decipherment as well as interpretation, proves to be another specimen of Angkorian Khmer at its best. The reader will profit by Mme Pou’s comments on its historical importance.


Catalog Number: K.1214

Name: Stele of Tuol Trapeang Samrong

Sources: Arlo Griffiths (en collaboration avec J.C. Eade et G. Gerschheimer), “La stèle d’in-stallation de Śrī Tribhuvaneśvara: une nouvelle inscription préangkorienne du Musée de Phnom Penh (K.1214),” in JA, 293.1 (2005): 11-43, hereafter identified as G.

Śaka date: (Śaka 648 = A.D. 726)

Conventional date: In the opening Sanskrit stanza (lines 1-4) the date is given as the 28th day of the month of Pauṣa, Śaka 648. The Common Era correspondence as calculated by J.C. Eade is Wednesday, 25 December, A.D. 726, by the Julian calendar.

Provenance: Duol Trabāṃṅ Saṃroṅ is located in the village of Bhlœṅ Cheḥ Radeḥ, in the commune of the same name, in the district of Taṅko, municipality of Phnom-Penh, 25 kilometers west of the capital. This inscription, registered at the Musée National de Phnom-Penh as Ka.3112, is engraved on a schist-like slab 126 cm high, 35 cm wide, and 8 cm thick, and was recovered from the site in 2003. It opens with 4 lines in Sanskrit followed by 27 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription records the setting up of an image of Śiva by three related individuals: a lord Vinītavin, his half-sister the tāñ Sthiradevī, and his brother-in-law the lord Vinītagaṇa. To provide for the divinity these three purchase riceland (lines 12-24), slaves (lines 24-31) and coconut and areca palms, and lay out a plantation. Witnesses to all purchases are named. This property is assigned jointly to the divinity and to the three sons of Vinītagaṇa, namely the lords Cāruvidya, Sucaritānanda, and Viditānanda. The inscription is legible from start to finish, is well-ordered and generally clear, and is a good source of lexical and onomastic data as well as of outstanding specimens of syntax.


Catalog Number: K.1218

Name: Inscription of Unknown Provenance

Sources: This inscription was communicated to me in the form of an analytical file on 5 September 2006 by M. Dominique Soutif.

Śaka date: (Śaka 929 = A.D. 1007/1008)

Conventional date: The number 2 of 926 is in doubt, and may be a 3.

Provenance: The inscription consists of a single line engraved along the outer edge of a handsome bronze vessel.

Synopsis: In sharp contrast to № 25 is this one-line inscription.


Catalog Number: K.1219

Name: Text on a Bronze Vessel

Sources: I am grateful to M. Dominique Soutif of the Corpus des Inscriptions Khmères project for communicating this text on 5 September 2006, together with his meticulous analysis and translation. The three interpolations are by M. Soutif.

Śaka date: (Śaka 1089 = A.D. 1168)

Conventional date:

Provenance: The inscription consists of a single line engraved along the outer edge of a bronze vessel of unknown provenance.

Synopsis: Another attestation to the sovereign Tribhuvanāditya.


Catalog Number: K.1229

Name: Stele of Vat Prâma

Sources: Initial decipherment received 15 February 2007 from M. Dominique Soutif; improved reading received 12 June 2007.

Śaka date: (Śaka 901 = A.D. 979)

Conventional date: J.C. Eade calculates the correspondence as Sunday, 25 April A.D. 975 by the Julian calendar.

Provenance: The attribution to Vat Prâma is by the Conservation d’Angkor. “Cependant,” notes M. Soutif, “d’après les recherches de thèse de Christophe Pottier, elle proviendrait plus précisément d’un autre site inédit au nord de Vat Prâma, à savoir le Prasat Trapeang Khna (le site porte également d’autres noms et est inventorié sous le numéro MH 428).”

Synopsis:


Catalog Number:

Name:

Sources:

Śaka date:

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:


Catalog Number:

Name: Inscription of Aṅkor Bórĕi

Sources: VS, 48-50.

Śaka date: (Undated, Angkorian)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Aṅkor Bórĕi see № 1, note 2. This ruined inscription consists of 15 lines, of which the first 12 are in Sanskrit. The forms between brackets are supplied by VS.

Synopsis: This inscription exemplifies a text from which next to nothing can be drawn.


Catalog Number: K. Battambang n. 27

Name: Inscription of Unknown Provenance

Sources: I owe the text of this inscription to a meticulous new reading by M. Dominique Soutif and Professor Gerdi Gerschheimer, kindly communicated to me by the former on 17 August 2006.

Śaka date: (Undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis: This inscription of 28 lines records the names of slaves given to Śrī Prabhāsasomeśvara by a kurāk of Bhīmapura. Grouped into the standard categories, these slaves number 149, while at the end one female and two children are added on by a lord Jayodvala. Because of its purpose the text is of routine grammatical interest but is a good source of onomastic data.


Catalog Number: Ka.3

Name: Inscription of Prasat Neang Khmau

Sources: NIC II/III: 195-6; fichier prepared by Professor Gerdi Gerschheimer.

Śaka date: (Undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Prasat Neang Khmau see № 23, note 2. A stone found at the site, measuring 48 x 49 centimeters, bears an inscription of which the beginning is lost, the two left corners of which are damaged. What remains consists of 14 lines, the first 2 in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: These 11 lines, of minor grammatical interest, exemplify some of the problems of decipherment.


Catalog Number: Ka.4

Name: Stele of Angkor Borei

Sources: NIC II/III: 188-9.

Śaka date: (Śaka 69[8] = A.D. 77[6])

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Aṅkor Bórĕi see № 1, note 2. Found at the site is a stone described by Mme Pou as a slab of dark sandstone of poor quality, measuring 145 x 74 x 14 centimeters, with a good many parts no longer legible. It bears an inscription of 14 lines in Khmer of which 13 are partially legible.

Synopsis: The condition of this inscription makes coherent translation out of the question, though the text shows several points of grammar worth the reader’s attention.


Catalog Number: Ka.7

Name: Fragment from Angkor Borei

Sources: NIC II/III: 183, not translated; VS, 42. I have profited by a detailed rereading of the text by Professor Gerdi Gerschheimer.

Śaka date: (Unassigned)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Aṅkor Bórĕi see № 1, note 2. No information is provided on the size of the stone or when it was recovered.

Synopsis: These 9 lines appear to record the establishment by a ci Et of a small Buddhist monastery and the modest gifts he makes to it. Difficult of decipherment, the text contains no points of grammar not already addressed.


Catalog Number: Ka.10

Name: Stele of Samrong Tong

Sources: NIC II/III: 186-7.

Śaka date: (Undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Samrong Tong is located in Kompong Speu province. Found at the site is a schist slab described by Mme Pou as measuring 53 x 52 x 9 centimeters and bearing a well executed inscription of 11 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: The 11 lines of this incomplete inscription are well preserved and are a good source of onomastic data, while the last 4 lines contain some instructive points of grammar.


Catalog Number: Ka.11

Name: Inscription of Kong Pisei

Sources: NIC II/III: 191-3; VS, 57-61,

Śaka date: (Śaka viie-viiie siècles = A.D. 678-877)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This inscription was recovered at Tuol Neak Ta Bak Ka, formerly in the khŭm of Daṅkor, sruk of Phnom-Penh, now presumably in the vicinity of Kong Pisei, Kompong Speu province. The stone bearing it measures 60 x 52 centimeters and is missing its upper part; surviving are 13 lines in Khmer. Mme Pou calls attention to the resemblance of the inscription to K.940 (A.D. 578-677, C V: 73), recovered from the same site, and opines that both are from the same hand.

Synopsis: This 15-line inscription, not easy of decipherment, reports gifts made by a poñ Yodhapravala and three codonors, presumably to the divinity mentioned in ruined lines 1-2. The gifts consist of slaves, ricefields, coconut palms, and cattle. The text contains some useful examples of grammar, including a rare variation on the periphrastic passive, as well as a change played on the usual terminal imprecation.


Catalog Number: Ka.12

Name: Stele of Kong Pisei

Sources: NIC II/III: 194; VS, 61-3.

Śaka date: (Undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Kong Pisei see № 138, note 2. A stele found at the site is described as a small rectangular piece of sandstone measuring 30 x 26 centimeters and bearing an inscription of 6 lines in Khmer.

Synopsis: This inscription is as curious as it is short. Its sole purpose appears to be the assignment of a possibly newly created sruk to the administrators of an unnamed pramāṇa. The closing admonition is worth attention.


Catalog Number: Ka.13

Name: Stele of Kong Pisei

Sources: NIC II/III: 197; VS, 64-7.

Śaka date: (Undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Kong Pisei see № 138, note 2. A stone found at the site is described as measuring 54 x 37 centimeters, damaged along the bottom, and of such poor quality as to require the lapicide to skip over certain imperfections.

Synopsis: This 13-line inscription records gifts made by three poñ to a divinity cited only as the vraḥ Utpanna: riceland, a kṣetra, cloth, slaves, cattle, a daily offering of milled rice, an annual offering of cloth. Decipherment is difficult and the final passage defies comprehension, but the text is not without points of grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: Ka.24

Name: Fragment from Angkor Borei

Sources: NIC II/III: 184; VS, 45-6. I have profited by a rereading of the text by Professor Gerdi Gerschheimer, whose amendments are included here without comment. This inscription has been assigned the provisional inventory number K.1215.

Śaka date: (Undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance: For the location of Aṅkor Bórĕi see № 1, note 2. No written description of the stone is available, but excellent photographs show it to be a well-executed grinding stone on the top surface of which this inscription is engraved.

Synopsis: This brief inscription is engraved on the flat surface of a handsome grinding stone. Offering no grammatical challenges, it contains a number of items of lexical interest.


Catalog Number: Ka.39

Name: Stele of Prasat Preah Theat

Sources: NIC II/III: 211-3.

Śaka date: (Undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Prasat Preah Theat is located in Roka, Kompong Thom province. A stone found at the site measures 173 x 56 centimeters and bears an inscription of 19 lines in Khmer on half of its surface, which has suffered much damage.

Synopsis: This frustrating inscription records gifts to a Śrī Kālañjaleśvara by several donors, all poñ. The gifts comprise slaves, riceland, palms, milled rice, and cloth. The condition of the text is such that development of coherent meaning is impossible.


Catalog Number: Ka.40

Name: Stele of Prasat Preah Theat

Sources: NIC II/III: 204-8.

Śaka date: (Unassigned)

See K.726A (A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Prasat Preah Theat is located in Roka, Kompong Thom province. According to Mme Pou, Ka.40 and K.42 were analyzed by G. Cœdès, who identified them as faces A and B respectively of K.726 (A.D. 678-777, C V: 75). But Cœdès gave the provenance of K.726 as Kompong Cham province (C I: 7, note 1), whereas the Musée National de Phnom-Penh states that “Ka. 40 émane de Kompong Thom et Ka. 42 de Kompong Cham!” (NIC II/III: 204).

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: Ka.42

Name: Stele of Tuol Areak

Sources: NIC II/III: 209-10.

Śaka date: (Unassigned)

See K.726B (A.D. 678-777)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tuol Areak is located in Phum Veal, Kompong Cham province. As has been explained (Ka.40, note 2), Ka.40 and K.42 were both analyzed by G. Cœdès, who identified them as faces A and B respectively of the same text, namely K.726 (A.D. 678-777, C V: 75. Confusion surrounds the provenance of the two texts: Cœdès referred K.726ABc to Kompong Cham province while the Musée National de Phnom-Penh refers Ka.40 to Kompong Thom and Ka.42 to Kompong Cham. The discrepancy cannot be resolved here.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: Ka.50

Name: Stele of Vat Prasat Preah Neang

Sources: NIC II/III: 216-8.

Śaka date: (Śaka 881 = A.D. 959)

Conventional date:

Provenance: This inscription is deposited in the National Museum of Phnom-Penh. Vat Prasat Preah Neang is located in Kompong Thom province, and the stele is said to have been found on Tuol Toap Sdac (dwl dā’p stec) in the sruk of Chamnar Krom. The text consists of 22 lines in Khmer: 14 on face A, 8 on face B.

Synopsis: Face B of this short inscription is ruined beyond exploitation, while face A is remarkable in that it consists of a single sentence with three clauses of indirect discourse, the last of which runs over onto face B. Because of its extraordinary complexity, the text is a good lesson in grammatical analysis.


Catalog Number: Ka.57

Name: Inscription of Aṅkor Bórĕi

Sources: Vong Sotheara (1999), VS (2003).

Śaka date: (Śaka 622-72 = A.D. 700-50)

Conventional date: VS’s ‘beginning of VIII century’.

Provenance: For the location of Aṅkor Bórĕi see № 1, note 2.

Synopsis: This short inscription reports the gift by unnamed donors of slaves and cattle to two divinities, a Śrī Kīrti Teṃ and a My Holy High Lord Panida. It ends in a good but garbled variation on the standard admonition. Owing to a number of doubtful readings the text is of no more than minor grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: Ka.64

Name: Stele of Tûol Pràsàt

Sources: NIC II/III: 200-3; VS, 119-38. I have profited much from a rereading of the text by Professor Gerdi Gerschheimer.

Śaka date: (Śaka viie-viiie siècles = A.D. 678-877)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Tûol Pràsàt is located in or near the community of Roka, Prey Veng province. This inscription comprises 59 lines: 24 on face A, 35 on face B. Face A consists of 12 lines in Sanskrit, 12 in Khmer; face B consists of 2 lines in Sanskrit, 35 in Khmer. Decipherment of this inscription being particularly difficult, the text offered here has been deliberately cleared of epigraphic details, all of which can be recovered from the footnotes to follow.

Synopsis: These 47 lines in Khmer record the names of some 431 slaves. The slavelists are distinguished by contrasting Khmer slaves (351 names) with those from Maleṅ (157 names). Face A registers 214 slaves, face B 217 slaves. On face A neither donor nor recipient is named, but additional gifts of cattle, palms, and riceland are mentioned; on face B the donors are identified as mratāñ kamratāṅ craṅ gos, while the slaves are given to an unnamed vihāra. The text is of interest in containing two lexical items which appear to be from a non-Khmer language of Maleṅ. The text is a good source of onomastic data but of little grammatical interest.


Catalog Number: Ka.79

Name: Stele from Takeo

Sources: NIC II/III: 198-9.

Śaka date: (Undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Pou describes the stone as measuring 31 x 20 centimeters and bearing an inscription of 13 lines of which a little over 9¼ are in Khmer, the remaining 2¾ in Sanskrit.

Synopsis: This 11-line inscription records gifts made to an unnamed āśrama by a poñ Sumanībhānu, presumably through a lord Akṣaravindu serving as yajamāna. The gifts include a few slaves, two ricefields, a field, two coconut palms, and a pair of oxen.


Catalog Number: Ka.87

Name: Stele from Phnom Bayang

Sources: NIC II/III: 219-23.

Śaka date: (Śaka 886 = A.D. 964)

Conventional date: On paleographic grounds Pou assigns this inscription to la fin du xe siècle, presumably referring to the Julian calendar. If it is indeed a part of K.19 it should be dated to Śaka 886.

Provenance: Phnoṃ Bàyàṅ is described as a hill in Takeo province located about a kilometer from the modern temple of the same name; it lies a few kilometers from the Vietnam frontier in the sruk of Kirivong, some distance west of RN 2 and not far from the Chau Doc canal. Found on the hill is this stele, which Pou identifies as a sequel to K.19, which is surely correct. She describes the text as moitié mutilé and as engraved in a markedly inferior hand, showing orthographic idiosyncrasies and certain ‘abus de l’emploi des relateurs (ta, gi)’, though I fail to recognize a single such case.

Synopsis: This inscription is remarkable for the contrast between its deplorable condition and the vividness and originality of those parts which are still legible. The latter are well worth the reader’s patience and close study. As far as it can be understood, the text from line 15 is concerned with the transfer of property belonging to the steñ Nādānta to the divinity at Śivapura as the sovereign’s rājapuṇya, as mentioned in K.19.


Catalog Number: Ka. TP/I

Name: Inscription of Thalā Pariváằtt I

Sources: VS, 167-74.

Śaka date: (undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance: Thalā Pariváằtt is an archeological site located in the sruk of the same name in Stung Treng province, a short distance from the right (west) bank of the Mékong and 5 or more kilometers upriver from the provincial seat.

Synopsis:


Catalog Number: Ka. TP/II

Name: Inscription of Thalā Parivằt II

Sources: VS, 167-74.

Śaka date: (undated)

Conventional date:

Provenance:

Synopsis:



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